Acute Rheumatic Fever - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Summary about Acute Rheumatic Fever in Urdu

یہ وہ بیماری ہے جو کہ دل، دماغ، جلد اور جوڑوں کو متاثر کر سکتی ہے۔  یہ متاثرہ اعضا میں سوزش اور دائمی نقصان کا باعث بن سکتی ہے۔ یہ پانچ سے پندرہ سال کی عمر کے بچوں زیادہ متاثر کرتا ہے لیکن اس سے زیادہ عمر کے افراد میں بھی اس کی علامات ظاہر ہو سکتی ہیں۔ اس بیماری کا باعث وہ بیکٹیریا ہیں جو گلا خراب کرنے اور سکارلٹ فیور  کے ذمہ دار ہیں۔ ان بیماریوں کے ناکافی علاج کے باعث اکیوٹ رہیو میٹک فیور  کی علامات ظاہر ہونے لگتی ہیں۔ 

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Summary about Acute Rheumatic Fever in English

Acute rheumatic fever is an autoimmune response to infections caused by group A streptococcus bacteria. It usually arises as a complication resulting from inadequately treated strep throat or scarlet fever. These bacteria are responsible for numerous problems like sore throat and scarlet fever. Acute rheumatic fever abbreviated as ARF is a common finding in children aged 5-15 years although it can affect children of any age and adults as well. It can lead to permanent cardiovascular damage and lead to heart failure besides many other problems. Timely diagnosis and treatment can save from long term complications and help in alleviating pain and allied symptoms. Log on to to find the complete list of doctors that deal with acute rheumatic fever. You can book appointments and can also opt for online consultations.

Symptoms of Acute Rheumatic Fever

The onset of acute rheumatic fever is seen two to four weeks after a strep throat infection. Symptoms tend to change as the disease progresses and may vary from patient to patient. Some people may exhibit few symptoms and others may have all the symptoms mentioned below:

  • Tenderness in knees. elbows. ankles and wrists
  • Fever
  • Pain in joints that can shift from one joint to other
  • Swelling in joints
  • Heart murmur
  • Erythema marginatum 
  • Sydenham chorea
  • Pain in chest
  • Unusual behaviors like sudden crying or inappropriate laughing

Causes of Acute Rheumatic Fever

Infections caused by Group A streptococcus bacteria are the main cause of acute rheumatic fever. These infections include strep throat, scarlet fever, and skin infections. However, ARF due to skin or infection from other body parts is rarely seen. Most commonly it results due to insufficiently treated strep throat. The exact mechanism of the cause of this disease is not clear yet however, it is thought to be due to a false immune response. The bacteria involved has a protein similar to that found in some body cells. The immune system ends up targetting cells of CNS, joint, skin, and heart. This leads to inflammation and symptoms of rheumatic fever.

Risk Factors of Acute Rheumatic Fever

Following are the factors that increase the likelihood of ARF:

Family History:

Presence of a specific gene makes some people more susceptible to this disease.

Certain Specific Strains of Strep Bacteria:

Infection with some specific strains of Strep bacteria increase chances of ARF compared to others.

Effect of Environment:

Shared living spaces, congested areas, improper sanitation and conditions that lead to repeated exposure to strep bacteria tend to enhance the risk of ARF.

Preventive Measures of Acute Rheumatic Fever

The only preventive measure for ARF is the proper treatment of strep throat and scarlet fever. Completing the course of prescribed antibiotics can prevent this complication which arises due to inadequate treatment of these infections.

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