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Congenital Aural Atresia & Microtia - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Congenital Aural Atresia & Microtia in Urdu

پیدائشی اورل آرٹیشیا اور مائکروشیا ایسی پیدائشی بیماری ہے جس میں بچے کا بیرونی کان یا تو بنا ہی نہیں ہوتا ہے یا پھر اس کی ساخت میں خرابی ہوتی ہے ۔ اس بیماری میں ایک کان یا دونوں کان متاثر ہو سکتے ہیں ۔نوۓ فی صد کیسز میں ایک ہی کان متاثر ہوتا ہے ۔ مائکروشیا حمل کے پہلے تین مہینوں میں ہی سامنے آسکتا ہے
مائکروشیا سے متاثر بچے مکمل طور پر یاجزوی طور پر سماعت کے مسائل سے دو چار ہو سکتے ہیں ۔جس سے ان کی آنے والی زندگی بھی متاثر ہو سکتی ہے ۔جزوی طور پر سماعت سے محروم بچوں کو گویائی کے مسائل کا بھی سامنا کرنا پڑ سکتا ہے ۔
قوت سماعت نہ ہونے کے سبب قوت گویائی سےمحرومی بھی ہو سکتی ہے جس کی وجہ سے ان بچوں کو دوسرے لوگوں سے رابطے میں دشواری ہو سکتی ہے مگر اسپیچ تھراپی کے ذریعے یہ اس کمی پر قابو پا سکتے ہیں ۔ اس کے علاوہ سماعت کی کمزوری کے لیۓ مختلف آلات اور خاص طرز زندگی کو اپنا کر ایسے بچے اپنی زندگی کو فعال انداز میں گزارنے کی کوشش کر سکتے ہیں

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Summary about Congenital Aural Atresia & Microtia in English

Congenital Aural Atresia and Microtia is a congenital abnormality in which a child's external ear is underdeveloped and usually malformed. One (unilateral) or both (bilateral) ears may be affected. It happens unilaterally in about 90% of cases. Microtia is most common in the first trimester of pregnancy, during the first few weeks of development.
 
Some children with microtia may have partial or complete hearing loss in the affected ear, which can have a negative impact on their quality of life. As children with partial hearing loss learn to speak, they may develop speech problems. Because of the hearing loss, interaction may be difficult, but therapy options can help. Deafness necessitates additional lifestyle adjustments and adaptations, but these are achievable, and most children adapt well.

Congenital Aural Atresia & Microtia Facts and Figures

According to the Journal of Audiology & Otology, right ear, and male dominance are evident in Congenital Aural Atresia and it is typically unilateral. Some further facts have been listed below:

Incidence of Congenital Aural Atresiaone in 10,000 to 20,000 births
Common inBabies
Problems related to Congenital Aural AtresiaJoint dysfunctions, facial paralysis, hearing loss
Specialists Who Treat Congenital Aural AtresiaAudiologists

Symptoms of Congenital Aural Atresia & Microtia

The symptoms of Congenital Aural Atresia and Microtia are:

  • The outer ear is abnormally formed
  • The outer ear is missing (anotia)
  • Ears that are smaller than average size

There are four grades of microtia:

  • Grade 1 - Your child may have a small but primarily normal external ear, but the ear canal may be narrowed or absent.
  • Grade 2 - The earlobe and the bottom third of your child's ear may appear to be normal, but the top two-thirds are small and malformed. It's possible that the ear canal is narrowed or missing entirely.
  • Grade 3 - In infants and children, this is the most common type of microtia. Small parts of an external ear, such as the beginnings of a lobe and a small amount of cartilage at the top, maybe present in your child's underdeveloped outer ear. There is usually no ear canal with grade 3 microtia.
  • Grade 4 - Anotia is a term used to describe the most severe form of microtia. If there is no pinna or ear canal present, either unilaterally or bilaterally, your child has anotia.

Causes of Congenital Aural Atresia & Microtia

Its exact cause is unknown, but it has been linked to:

  • drug use during pregnancy
  • genetic conditions or changes
  • environmental triggers
  • a low-carbohydrate, low-folic acid diet
  • gestational diabetes
  • having a previous pregnancy of microtia

Read more about the 5 Natural Ways to Fight Ear Infection in Toddlers.

Preventive Measures of Congenital Aural Atresia & Microtia

Women can take the following steps to reduce their chances of having a baby with microtia:

  • Avoiding certain medications during pregnancy
  • Getting adequate nutrition while pregnant

Treatment

The treatment options are:

  • rib cartilage graft surgery
  • medpor graft surgery
  • prosthetic external year
  • surgically implanted hearing aids

Some children with microtia may be able to benefit from nonsurgical hearing aids. Depending on the severity of the child's microtia, they might be a good candidate for this type of device, especially if they're too young for surgery or you're delaying it. If an ear canal is present, hearing aids may be used.