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Keloid - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Keloid in Urdu

انسانی جسم ذخم میں مرمت کرنے اور زخم کی حفاظت کرنے کے لئے  ٹھوس ٹشو کی شکل میں ایک پرت بناتاہے. بعض اوقات  یہ ٹشو ضرورت سے زیادہ تیارہونے لگتا ہے،اور جسم کی سطح پر ہموار اور سخت شکل اختیار کر جاتا ہے. یہ اصل زخم سےبڑا ہوتا ہے. سینے، کندھے، اور گالوں کی جلد اس مرض سے  زیادہ متاثر ہوتی ہے. تاہم، کیلوائڈس سے جسم کا کوئی بھی حصہ متاثر ہوسکتا ہے. اگرچہ کیلوائڈس صحت کے لیے نقصان دہ نہیں ہیں،لیکن ان کی وجہ سے کاسمیٹک مسائل پیدا کرسکتے ہیں. اس بیماری کی وجہ سے بننے والے کھرنڈ جامنی رنگت کے حامل ہوتے ہیں اور وقت کے ساتھ ان کاحجم بڑھتا چلا جاتا ہے۔  یہ عام ذخموں کے کھرنڈ کی طرح مندمل نہیں ہوتے۔  ان کا علاج کافی دقت طلد ہو سکتا ہے۔ زیادہ تر اس کے نتائج بھی تسلی بخش نہیں ہوتے۔  یہ درمیانی عمر کے افراد میں زیادہ عام ہے۔ یہ موروثی طور پر منتقل ہونے والی بیماریوں میں سے ہے۔

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Summary about Keloid in English

Keloids are a type of raised scar that appears on the skin. They appear after the skin has healed from an injury. They have the potential to grow much larger than the original injury that caused the scar. They are extremely rare but are more common in people with dark skin. A keloid can be caused by anything that can cause a scar. This includes being burnt, cut, or suffering from severe acne. Keloids can also form as a result of a body piercing, tattoo, or surgery. Keloids can appear three months or more after your skin has been injured. Some will continue to grow for many years.

Symptoms of Keloid

Keloids basically originate when scar tissues overgrow. The resulting scars are generally bigger than the wound on which it forms. It takes them some time to grow to their largest extent; some weeks and even months.

Keloid symptoms generally include:

  • A pinkish, reddish or flesh-colored, well-defined area
  • A raised and lumpy area on the skin
  • A section of the skin that progressively becomes bigger over time
  • Itchiness on that area is also experienced

Even though keloid scars could be itchy, they are not a major health concern. One might feel discomfort or sensitive when the clothing rubs against these scars.

 

Causes of Keloid

Skin injuries are one primary cause associated with keloids. These injuries include acne, and chickenpox, scars, sites where there are surgical incisions and vaccine injection. Ear piercings and burns can also cause keloid scarring. In fact, keloid scarring tends to happen in places where injury has happened.

About 1 in 10 people have had keloid scars. It does not matter if the individual is a male or female; it appears equally in both genders. Scientists have observed that people having darker skins reported more cases of keloids. There is also a genetic link tied to this condition. The predisposition to have keloids could be transferred from the parents to the children.

One specific gene that is understood to cause keloid scarring is the AHNAK gene. Researchers have studied this gene and come up with an observation that those who have this gene are much more likely to have keloids than those who are without it.

 These are some examples:

  • scars from acne
  • scars from burns
  • scars from chickenpox
  • scratched ear piercings
  • sites of surgical incisions
  • vaccination sites

Treatment

The treatment's goal is to flatten, soften, or shrink the keloid. Keloids can be challenging to remove. They sometimes return after treatment. Many doctors will combine treatments to achieve the best results. Among the treatments are the following:

  • Corticosteroid injections- The medicine in these shots aids in scar reduction.
  • Cryotherapy- The scar is being frozen. This is known as cryotherapy, and it can be used to reduce the hardness and size of the keloid. It is most effective on small keloids.
  • Covering- Covering the scar with silicone sheets or gel. This can aid in the flattening of the keloid.
  • Laser treatment- This can assist in the flattening of the keloid. It can also cause the color to fade.
  • Surgical amputation- This entails removing the keloid.

 

Risk Factors of Keloid

The factors that put the individual at the highest risk for developing keloids include genetics. This condition seems to be associated to familial links as it has been observed that if the parents have keloid-ic growths, their offspring will probably also have it. Along with AHNAK gene, a mutation in the NEDD4 gene could also predispose the person to have keloid scarring in the future.

Other than genes, different skin colors and different ethnicities could also determine how much vulnerable one is to this scarring. Basically, those who have a darker skin are about 15 times more likely to have it. This means that this condition is more common in those who have a South Asian, Hispanic or African descent.

Furthermore, the age at which keloids usually occurs is the middle age; meaning that it occurs less frequently in children and the older people.

 

Preventive Measures of Keloid

Keloid scars are seldom treated without difficulty. In fact, sometimes the treatment might not even have the desired effect. This is why it is essential to not let the skin injury even happen. If the skin is still injured, one should use pads like pressure or silicone gel pads to avoid keloid scarring.

If the keloid scarring has already taken place one could make sure that it at least looks less cosmetically unpleasant. So, one should avoid exposing skin to the sun for too long as too much exposure would result in the keloid scar standing out more compared to the surrounding skin. One way to avoid sun exposure is by covering the keloid in regular clothes. If that is not possible, the person should at least apply sunscreen.

Following are some preventive measures:

  • Keep a close eye after ear piercings;
  • Always do a spot test before cosmetic surgeries;
  • Pay close attention to any wound on your body;
  • Seek medical assistance as soon as you see a keloid forming.