Gingivitis (gingiva-gums and itis-inflammation) is swelling of gums without any tissue damage or any destruction of teeth and gums, but it causes bleeding while teeth brushing. People having gingivitis have puffy red gums and sometimes tender or painful to touch. The most common type is plaque-induced gingivitis. Plaque is basically a bio-film made of bacterial deposition on the surface of teeth which becomes Tartar or dental calculus (hard film) if not removed daily with proper tooth brushing or dental flossing. Other than plaque, there are many factors that cause gingivitis. Gingivitis if left untreated, may lead to periodontal disease (gum disease which leads to tooth decay and tooth loss) which is a severe type of gum disease.
Read also: 5 Causes Of Bad Oral Hygiene
Here are some main causes of gingivitis that you should know and avoid to maintain your oral health, But if someone has a serious condition, book an online appointment with the best dentist in Lahore or other main cities of Pakistan.
1. Bad oral Hygiene
Oral hygiene is a very important factor to avoid gingivitis. Proper daily brushing with the right type of toothbrush and dental flossing can avoid plaque formation that is the main cause of gingivitis. Interdental aids such as dental floss and interdental brushes can control and remove plaque. It is very important to control plaque formation as the bacteria present in plaque produce acids which cause demineralization of teeth and make hard pale film knows as Dental Calculus which needs professional help for its removal.
2. Change in Hormones
Changes in hormones during puberty, menstrual cycle, pregnancy and menopause influence the whole female body and hence also affect the oral health. It makes gums more sensitive which make it easy to develop gingivitis. Oral contraceptive pills usually containing progesterone also causes this problem. Tell your dentist if you are taking OCPs.
Smoking makes your gums more sensitive and leads to delay in gums repair. People who smoke and chew tobacco are at high risk of gums diseases.
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4. Family History
Family history is also an important factor which causes gingivitis. As the immune response is controlled by the genes, the healing of the gums may also be controlled by the genes.
Malnutrition is a very important factor which causes oral diseases including gingivitis. Vitamin C is a strong anti oxidant which is important for oral health. Folic acid is also important for our gums and its deficiency causes gingivitis. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is important for the activation of folic acid and hence it is also necessary for oral health. These vitamins are not produced by the body and they can’t be stored in the body. That is why proper nutrition is required for oral health.
Other than these cases, some medications like Dilantin (anti convulsant) and some anti-angina medicines cause gingivitis. Some drugs which reduce the flow of saliva also cause oral problems.
Many diseases like diabetes, cancer and HIV are also the risk factors for oral diseases. So keeping in mind all these factors we can avoid gingivitis and maintain our oral health.
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