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Coloboma comes from a Greek word which means curtailed, mutilated or defect. It is used to describe the conditions where normal tissues in or around the eyes are missing from birth. It is usually a hole in one of the structures of the eye, such as iris or eyelid. In most of the cases, coloboma is congenital (present from birth) but it can also be the result of eye surgery or eye trauma. However, it can affect one or both eyes of the individual. For professional constancy, it is advisable to consult with the ophthalmologist.
What Are The Different Kinds Of Coloboma?
There are different kinds of coloboma and these kinds depend on which part of the eye is missing. However, it usually affects the:
- Optic nerve
What Causes This Condition?
It generally occurs from congenital malformation, caused by the failed or incomplete closure of the embryonic fissure. The embryonic fissure normally closes around the 6th week of pregnancy but in coloboma, it doesn’t happen. Some other kinds of coloboma can occur as a result of an accident when iris is ruptured.
What Are The Symptoms?
There may or may not be any symptoms of coloboma, it all depends on its kind and amount and location of the missing tissue. But as the iris controls the amount of light entering the eye by adjusting the size of the pupil, in coloboma when iris has defected it can no longer perform this control function. However, people with coloboma are more sensitive to fierce looks and light. This is because more scattered light can enter in their eye through the enlarged pupil.
How Is It Treated?
For now, there is no cure for a coloboma. Depending on the type and severity of coloboma, the following treatments may be useful:
- Light protection spectacles
- Correction any refractive error with glasses or contact lenses
- Maximizing the vision of the most affected eye, which includes the use of patching or eye drops to temporarily blur the vision in the stronger eye for the limited time period.
- Using low vision devices a needed
- Managing any other eye problem that may be present with coloboma such as cataract
- Surgery to make the pupil rounder
- Surgery for artificial iris lens or iris implants
Different rehabilitation services can also be used to manage this condition. This includes early intervention and awareness programs. However, genetic counseling is also to be offered to the patients and their family members. For professional consultancy, feel free to consult with the ophthalmologist in a rushy city like Karachi within less time.