Vitiligo - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Summary about Vitiligo in Urdu

برص کی بیماری کو ویٹیلیگو کہا جاتا ہے۔ یہ جسم کی جلد پر جگہ جگہ دھبوں کہ صورت میں رنگت ختم ہو جانے کی بیماری ہے۔اگرچہ یہ کسی قسم کے جسمانی تکلیف کا سبب نہیں ہے لیکن ایسے افراد دماغی پریشانی اور احساس کمتری کا شکار ہو سکتے ہیں۔ یہ بیماری بالوں اور منہ کی اندرونی سظح پر بھی اثر انداز ہو سکتی ہے۔ ویٹیلیگو کی بیماری اس وقت سامنے آتی ہے جب جلد میں رنگت پیدا کرنے والے خلیے کم ہو جاتے ہیں یا ختم ہو جاتے ہیں۔ یہ بیماری متاثرہ شخص سے دوسروں میں نہیں پھیلتی اور نہ ہی یہ کسی قسم کی پیچیدگیوں کا باعث بنتی ہے۔ اگرچہ ولاج سے جلد کی رنگت واپس لانا ممکن ہے لیکن اس بیامری سے بچائو کی کوئی تدابیر تاحال سامنے نہیں آ سکی ہیں۔ 

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Summary about Vitiligo in English

Vitiligo is a condition in which the skin on the spots loses color. The degree and speed of color loss of vitiligo are unpredictable. This can have effects on the skin of anybody. This can also affect the hair and the inside of the mouth. The color of the skin is determined by the amount of the melanin. Vitiligo occurs when cells that produce melanin die or stop functioning. Vitiligo affects people of all skin types but may be more visible in darker areas of the skin. The condition is not fatal or contagious. It can be exhausting or you feel bad about yourself. The treatment of vitiligo can return the color of the affected skin. However, this does not prevent the continuous loss of skin color or recurrence.

The meaning of vitiligo in Urdu is 'baras ka marz'.

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Symptoms of Vitiligo

The primary vitilgo sign is loss of skin color in patches. Typically, the discoloration appears initially on areas of the skin that are exposed to the sun, like the hands, arms, feet and the lips.

Generally, the symptoms include

  • Loss of skin color in patches
  • The scalp hair begins to gray or whiten prematurely
  • Tissues that make up the mouth’s and nose’s inner linings, or mucous membranes, lose their color
  • The eyeball’s inner layer also loses its color

There is no set age for vitiligo. However, it mostly occurs before 20 years.

The symptoms of vitiligo can also differ on the basis of the type of vitiligo. For example, sometimes the vitiligo could occur on multiple parts of the body, while in other cases the vitiligo could occur in just one part of the body or just one side of the body and stops after one year of progression.

Causes of Vitiligo

The main cause of vitiligo is the death of melanocytes, or the cells that produce the skin pigment which basically determines the color of the skin, hair and eyes. The patches where the melanocytes die acquire a lighter or whiter color. While doctors do not know what actually causes this death, they have identified certain factors that might contribute. They have identified genetics, a triggering event (exposure to harmful substances) and an auto-immune disorder which could incite the immune system to attack the pigment producing cells in the skin.

Risk Factors of Vitiligo

While vitiligo does not occur in a set pattern, research has shown that about one fifth of the people suffering from this condition have some family history. Situations in which the individual is exposed to phenolic substances like industrial work increase the susceptibility to develop vitiligo.

Preventive Measures of Vitiligo

The severity could be reduced; however, vitiligo is very difficult to completely get rid of. Furthermore, doctors have found no proper method to prevent vitiligo. 

While vitiligo cannot be cured by any home remedies, sunscreen along with makeup are the go-to method of making the skin appear to be more even.

Types of Vitiligo

There are two main types of vitiligo according to doctors:

  1. Nonsegmental vitiligo. This vitiligo type is the most frequently occurring one.  This type is characterized by appearance of white patches on either body side and on multiple body parts. It normally begins near the hands and/or near the mouth or eyes. It can also appear first on the feet or another body part where there is a higher chance of skin rubbing together. Furthermore, nonsegmental vitiligo is also characterized by vitiligo progression in spurts over the person’s lifetime with the condition appearing more and more noticeable.
  2. Segmental vitiligo. Beginning at a younger age, this vitiligo type follows a progression of not more than about a year before stopping. This type occurs, as the name suggests, only in one body part like on one limb. Approximately half the cases with this type also report color changes in scalp hair, eyelashes and/or the eyebrows. Segmental vitiligo has a lower prevalence rate than nonsegmental vitiligo; only 1 in 10 patients with vitiligo have are diagnosed with this type.

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