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Copd - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

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Summary about Copd

COPD stands for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is a group of diseases that cause airflow obstruction and breathing difficulties and mainly affects the lungs. This disease consists of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. COPD diagnosis is usually done by using spirometry. 

COPD Facts and Figures

According to COPD research published in the BJGP Open journal, smoking is the leading cause of lung problems in Pakistan. Due to this high prevalence of smoking, it has been concluded that COPD cases are likely to increase in the future. Find the facts and statistics about COPD in Pakistan below:

Prevalence of COPD in PakistanApprox. 2.1%
Commonly AffectsOlder Adults
At-Risk GenderBoth Males and Females 
Age for Early symptomsYoung to older adults
Average Age for DiagnosisAfter 45 Years
Problems related to COPDPneumonia, Heart Disease, Lung Cancer, Depression 
Specialists Who Treat COPDPulmonologists/Lung Specialists



Symptoms of Copd

COPD can have the following signs and symptoms;

  • Coughing or wheezing frequently.
  • Phlegm or sputum in excess.
  • Breathing difficulty.
  • Having difficulty taking a deep breath.

Causes of Copd

COPD causes:

  • Cigarette smoking is responsible for approximately 85 to 90 percent of all COPD cases. What you breathe every day at work, at home, and outside can all contribute to the development of COPD.
  • Smoking is the leading cause of COPD, but nonsmokers can develop it as well because of Alpha-1 Deficiency.

Preventive Measures of Copd

The preventive measures for COPD are:

  • The best way to avoid COPD is to never start smoking and to quit if you already do. 
  • Consult your doctor about programs and products that can assist you in quitting. 
  • Also, avoid secondhand smoke, which is smoke from the combustion of tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes.

COPD Treatment 

Some treatment options for COPD include the following: 

  • Flu or pneumonia vaccines
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation
  • Oxygen therapy
  • Bronchodilators
  • Corticosteroids
  • Combination inhalers
  • Antibiotics