Tuberculosis - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Summary about Tuberculosis in Urdu

یہ ایک خطرناک بیماری ہے جو بنیادی طور پر پھیپھڑوں کو متاثر کرتی ہے لیکن جسم کے دوسرے حصوں کو بھی ٹی بی متاثر کر سکتی ہے. ٹی بی کا سبب ایک خاص قسم کے بیکٹیریا ہیں۔ یہ بیکٹیریا متاثرہ شخص کے کھانسنے اور چھینکنے سے ہوا میں پھیل کر دوسرے لوگوں کو متاثر کر سکتا ہے۔

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Summary about Tuberculosis in English

Tuberculosis is a chronic disease that mainly affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body like the spine. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria that cause TB to spread from person to person through small droplets released into the air by coughing and sneezing. TB infections in developed countries began to increase in 1985. In the United States, tuberculosis began to decline in 1993 thanks to a strengthened control program but remains a concern.

Many strains of TB are resistant to the drugs most commonly used to treat this disease. People with active TB will need to take several types of medications for several months to eliminate the infection and prevent the development of antibiotic resistance. It is manifested by following signs and symptoms

  • Coughing with blood.
  • Chest pain or narrowness of chest
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Fatigue.
  • Fever.
  • Night Sweats
  • Chills


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Symptoms of Tuberculosis


Although your body can harbor the bacteria that cause TB, your immune system can normally prevent you from getting sick. Because of this, doctors distinguish between:

Latent TB In this situation you are infected with TB, but the bacteria remain inactive in your body and cause no symptoms. Latent tuberculosis, also known as inactive tuberculosis or tuberculous infection, is not contagious. It can be active tuberculosis. Therefore, the treatment is important for the person with latent tuberculosis and helps to control the spread of tuberculosis. It is estimated that 2 billion people have latent tuberculosis.

Active TB This condition makes you ill and in most cases can spread to others. It can occur in the first few weeks after TB infection or even years later.

Signs and symptoms of active TB include:

  • Coughing lasts for three weeks or more

  • Cough with blood

  • Chest pain or pain when breathing or coughing

  • Accidental weight loss

  • Tired

  • fever

  • Night is sweating

  • chills

  • anorexia

Tuberculosis can also affect other parts of your body, including the kidneys, the spine, or the brain. When tuberculosis occurs outside the lungs, the signs and symptoms vary according to the organs involved. For example, tuberculosis of the spine can cause back pain, and tuberculosis of the kidneys can cause blood in the urine.

Causes of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is caused by the bacteria that spread by the bacteria which release through the droplets of sneezing and coughing. When an individual of untreated infection sneeze, cough, laughs and sings. Tuberculosis is harmful, it is difficult to catch it. Someone can become a victim of the disease whom he is living than a stranger. Most of the people with at least two weeks of treatment are save from the disease. 

 HIV and TB

Since the 1980s the number of the case of the TB patient is increased due to the spread of the AIDS virus.due to the virus people are more prone to get the TB because the HIV weakens the immune system of the body and body is unable to fight against the TB bacteria. 

Drug-resistant TB

Another reason for the tuberculosis is the resistant of the bacteria to the vaccine. Since the first antibiotic used for the treatment, the germs become more resistant to the medications. Drug-resistant strains of TB occurs due to the germs left after the medication. 

Risk Factors of Tuberculosis

Anyone can get tuberculosis but few factors can increase the risk of the disease. These factors are. 

 Weakened immune system

A healthy immune system often fights tuberculosis bacteria successfully, but your body can not defend itself effectively with little resistance. Many disease and conditions weaken the immune system of the body. 

  • HIV / AIDS

  • diabetes

  • Severe kidney disease

  • Some Cancers

  • Cancer treatment such as chemotherapy.

  • Medications for the prevention of rejection of transplanted organs.

  • Some medications for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis

  • malnutrition

  • Travel or live in certain areas

The risk of developing tuberculosis is higher for people who live or travel in high-TB and drug-resistant tuberculosis areas, including:

  • Africa

  • Eastern Europe

  • Asia

  • Russia

  • Latin America

  • Caribbean islands

Poverty and addiction

Lack of medical care. If you have a low or fixed income, living in a remote area, recently emigrated to the United States, or homeless, you may not have access to the medical care needed to diagnose and treat tuberculosis.

Consumption of substances.

 Injection or excessive alcohol consumption weakens the immune system and makes you more susceptible to tuberculosis.

Use of tobacco. 

The use of tobacco significantly increases the risk of getting TB and dying.

Where you work or live

Health work Regular contact with sick people increases the risk of exposure to TB bacteria. Wearing a mask and washing your hands often reduces your risk.

Live or work in a residential care facility. 

People living or working in prisons, homeless shelters, psychiatric hospitals or retirement homes are at greater risk of developing tuberculosis. In fact, the risk of contracting the disease is greater wherever overpopulation and poor ventilation prevail.

Live or emigrate from a country where TB is common. 

People in a country where tuberculosis is common can be at high risk for TB infection.

Living with a person infected with tuberculosis. 

Living with a person with TB increases their risk.

Preventive Measures of Tuberculosis

If your latent TB infection test is positive, your doctor may recommend taking medication to reduce the risk of active TB. The only type of infectious tuberculosis is the active variety that affects the lungs.

Protect your family and friends

It usually takes a few weeks for the infection to stop. Follow these tips to prevent your friends and family from getting sick:

Stay at home.

Do not go to work or school and do not sleep in a room with other people during the first few weeks of TB treatment.

Ventilate the room. 

The germs of tuberculosis spread more easily in small, closed rooms in which the air does not move. If it's not too cold outside, open the windows and blow in the air with a fan.

Cover Your Mouth.

 Use a cloth to cover your mouth when you laugh, sneeze or cough. Put the dirty cloth in a bag, close it and discard it.

Wearing a Mask 

Using a surgical mask during the first three weeks of treatment with others may help to reduce the risk of transmission.

Complete your treatment

This is the most important step to protect yourself and others from TB. If you stop treatment prematurely or skip a dose, TB bacteria have the potential to develop mutations that allow them to survive the most potent antituberculous drugs. The strains that are resistant to the resulting drugs are much more deadly and difficult to treat.

Vaccinations

In countries where tuberculosis is most prevalent, babies are often vaccinated with the as it can prevent severe TB in children. Dozens of new TB vaccines are at various stages of development and testing.

Doctors for Tuberculosis in Different Cities