ہرنیا جسم کے کسی اندرونی عضو کا اس کے گرد موجود پٹھوں سے باہر نکل آنے کی حالت ہے۔ زیادہ تر ہرنیا پیٹ یا اس کے ارد گرد کے اعضا میں دیکھنے آتا ہے لیکن ہ ٹانگوں کے اوپری حصے یا ناف میں بھی ہو سکتا ہے۔ موٹاپا، حمل، سرجری یا بہت زیادہ وزن اٹھانے والی مشقت کرنا اس بیماری کا باعث بن سکتا ہے۔ اگرچہ یہ کوئی سنگین بیماری نہیں ہے لیکن کچھ ھالات میں اس کا علاج بذریعہ سرجری کیا جانا ناگزیر ہو جاتا ہے۔
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A hernia is a disease during which an internal organ protrudes or leaks through the weak points of the surrounding muscles. Hernia can occur anywhere in the body but common hernias develop in the abdominal and groin region. Hernia disease does not cause much pain in the initial stages but it should be removed in the early stages to avoid complications.
Hernia disease can be treated in Pakistan by the top general or laparoscopic surgeons.
Hernia can be diagnosed by doctors in Pakistan by a physical exam of the groin area to detect the bulge followed by a CT scan for a confirmatory diagnosis.
Hernia generally does not repair on its own and surgical treatment is required. The surgical treatment for hernia can be either an;
Open hernia surgery - during which an incision is made in the region of the disease and the hernia is repaired. The incision is closed using sutures
Laparoscopic surgery - which is a hernia surgery using certain medical tools to repair the hernia. Robotic surgery may also be performed during which the tools are operated by the robots and the central control operations lie in the hands of the surgeon performing the surgery.
Hernias are treated during the early stages to prevent complications of the disease. Some of the complications that can worsen the disease include;
Enlargement of hernia: If not treated earlier, a hernia can extend to the nearby regions affecting other organs. For eg during inguinal hernia in men, the hernial bulge may extend to the scrotum
Obstructive hernia: Also known as incarcerated hernia, it is a complication associated with a hernia during which part of the abdominal muscles or intestines become trapped in the hernial sac leading to bowel obstructions, nausea, vomiting, and other digestive complications
Intestinal ischemia: It is also known as a strangulated hernia. In severe cases, a hernia can result in a life-threatening situation where the blood supply to the part of the intestines is blocked resulting in an intestinal ischemic attack
Excruciating groin pain: Unbearable pain in the groin, inner thighs, and back can occur making it difficult to even stand straight
Scrotal and testicular pain and swelling: Leading to immobility, these types of pains and swellings are a medical emergency and need immediate surgery for treating the hernia in Pakistan.
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Some of the common symptoms associated with hernia include;
A noticeable bulge in the groin or abdominal region that gets more noticeable
Increased sudden pain at the site or bulge
Painful sensations that get worsened quickly
Nausea and vomiting
In children, a noticeable swelling particularly in the groin region can be felt if the congenital hernia is present in addition to the tenderness in the belly region.
A hernia does not usually have a definitive cause and can affect an individual at any stage of their life.
However, certain hernias may occur due to the;
Congenital (present since birth)
Lifting heavy weights
Pressure in the abdominal region
Chronic persistent cough
Digestive issues like diarrhea and constipation
Muscle weakness associated with aging
Obesity and nutritional deficiencies can also weaken the abdominal muscles resulting in weak spots for a hernia.
Hernia can develop at any age and affect individuals at all ages however, certain factors may contribute to the increase in the risk of developing the hernia disease.
Some of the commonly known risk factors associated with hernia include;
Lifting heavy weight
Chronic persistent constipation
Premature delivery in children
Low body weight during birth
Had hernia in the past
You can not prevent an inherent defect that makes you prone to an inguinal hernia. However, you can reduce the pressure on the muscles and the abdominal tissue. For example:
Keep a healthy weight and talk to your doctor about the best exercise and diet for you.
Focus on foods with high fiber content. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains contain fiber, preventing constipation and fatigue.
Lift heavy objects carefully or do not pick up heavy objects. If you need to lift something heavy, always bend the knees, not the waist.
Stop smoking. In addition to its role in many serious illnesses, smoking often causes a chronic cough that can lead to or increase the depth of inguinal hernias.
Wearing supportive clothing designed to hold a hernia in place (the hernia shoe) does not solve the problem or prevent complications.
There are different types of hernias based on the locations of projecting organs. A hernia is classified generally as;
Inguinal hernia: The ratio of this most common type of hernia is higher in men as compared to women. During an inguinal hernia, part of the intestine protrudes through the abdominal muscles or the groin
Femoral hernia: The femoral artery is carried into the upper thigh through the canal. A femoral hernia occurs when part of the intestine enters this canal. It is common in pregnant and obese women
Umbilical hernia: During umbilical hernia, a part of the small intestine projects out through the abdominal wall near the belly button
Incisional hernia: It is the projection of the tissues from the abdominal or pelvic scar