Hernia - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Summary about Hernia in Urdu

ہرنیا جسم کے کسی اندرونی عضو کا اس کے گرد موجود پٹھوں سے باہر نکل آنے کی حالت ہے۔ زیادہ تر ہرنیا پیٹ یا اس کے ارد گرد کے اعضا میں دیکھنے آتا ہے لیکن ہ ٹانگوں کے اوپری حصے یا ناف میں بھی ہو سکتا ہے۔ موٹاپا، حمل، سرجری یا بہت زیادہ وزن اٹھانے والی مشقت کرنا اس بیماری کا باعث بن سکتا ہے۔ اگرچہ یہ کوئی سنگین بیماری نہیں ہے لیکن کچھ ھالات میں اس کا علاج بذریعہ سرجری کیا جانا ناگزیر ہو جاتا ہے۔

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Summary about Hernia in English

When the muscles or connective tissues surrounding internal organs become weak these organs, fatty tissues or a part of these organs can squeeze through these muscles and tissues leading to a condition called hernia. The bulge that results can be painful in the events of coughing, sneezing or lifting heavy weight. Mostly a hernia is not a serious health issue however in some cases it can lead to severe complications. Surgical removal of hernia is the only recommended procedure to get rid of this condition. 

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Symptoms of Hernia

Hernias are most commonly presented as a lump or protruding bulge at the site affected. Different types of hernia have symptoms specific to them as well. Like in case of inguinal hernia there is a lump at either side of pubic bone at the junction of thigh and groin. It becomes easy to spot a hernia while standing, bending, or coughing. Other symptoms of inguinal hernia are:

  • Discomfort in the lower abdomen
  • Heaviness in the lower abdomen 
  • Ache and burning sensation at the site of a hernia

The bulge associated with umbilical hernia becomes detectable when a baby cries. In the case of hiatal hernia regurgitation of food in food pipe, chest pain, and difficulty in swallowing are the presenting complaints.

Causes of Hernia

The weakness of muscles and strain lead to hernias. A hernia may develop suddenly or over a long period of time. Commonly seen causes of hernia are:

  • Prolonged cough
  • Congenital defects of abdominal pain
  • Age
  • Damage due to trauma or surgery

Pregnancy, obesity, constipation, and other factors that stress your body can lead to a hernia.

Risk Factors of Hernia

Pregnancy, sudden weight gain, chronic constipation, cough, and a family history of hernia increase the risk of hernias.

Preventive Measures of Hernia

You can not prevent an inherent defect that makes you prone to inguinal hernia. However, you can reduce the pressure on the muscles and the abdominal tissue. For example:

  •  Keep a healthy weight and talk to your doctor about the best exercise and diet for you.

  •  Focus on foods with high fiber content. Fruits, vegetables and whole grains contain fiber, preventing constipation and fatigue.

  •  Lift heavy objects carefully or do not pick up heavy objects. If you need to lift something heavy, always bend the knees, not the waist.

  •  Stop smoking. In addition to its role in many serious illnesses, smoking often causes a chronic cough that can lead to or increase the depth of inguinal hernias.

  • Wearing supportive clothing designed to hold a hernia in place (the hernia shoe) does not solve the problem or prevent complications.

Types of Hernia

Types of hernia are:

  1. Inguinal Hernia
  2. Incisional hernia
  3. Femoral hernia
  4. Umbilical hernia
  5. Hiatal hernia

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