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Bone fracture is a medical condition in which any bone of the body gets broken or damaged. This may be the result of high-force implementation or stress, sports or accidental injury, or weakness of the bones due to some medical condition like osteoporosis, bone cancer, or osteogenesis. The fractured bone causes severe pain and immobility of the related joints. This is treated by a bone fracture doctor with medication, immobilization, and surgical approaches used in combination.
Bone fractures are easily diagnosed by a physical exam performed by an orthopedic surgeon. The history of any accident that resulted in a bone injury may also help the doctor to diagnose the fracture and its type. The diagnosis of bone fracture involves;
Physical examination of the affected bone
Imaging techniques to view the inside of the bone to locate the fracture and evaluate it like;
The fracture treatment is time-consuming and may take months to recover completely as it is a natural process. Some of the treatment options that aid in restoring bone mobility and preventing further complications include;
Medicine to relieve pain
Splint or cast - They are orthopedic devices that are used to keep the injured or broken bone in place. It reduces the mobility of fractured bone to prevent bone displacement after the fracture
For severe and complicated bone fractures, surgery may be required. The types of surgical procedures include;
Internal fixation - insertion of metal pieces inside the bones after healing them to secure the parts in place
External fixation - Screws are put in the bone on either side of the fracture and connected to brackets outside the body
Bone grafting - For severe complicated fractures that have missing parts of the bone, additional bone tissues are grafted to rejoin the fracturesMarham provides a platform for consultation with the best fracture specialist available near you in Pakistan at an affordable price.
The symptoms indicating a bone fracture include;
Sudden pain in a bone
Immobility of any bone
Swelling in a particular bone
Redness, bruising or swelling in a bone
A bone fracture can result from any traumatic injury to the bone or a weakness in the bone. Some of the known causes of bone fracture include;
Bone breakage due to a fall
Bone trauma due to a sudden blow
Direct kick on the bone resulting in breakage
Overuse or repetitive use of a bone-like in athletics
Diseases like osteoporosis which weakens the bones
Bone fractures and breakage may result in certain complications which include;
Wrong bone healing: The fractured bone may heal in the wrong place
Infections: During open fractures, bacteria may invade the open places leading to infections on bone or bone marrow
Blood vessels damage may lead to bone death or osteonecrosis
Nerve damage may occur as a result of a blow on the nerves during an accident which led to bone fracture
Embolism may result due to the formation of a blood clot due to swelling around the fracture or immobility due to fracture may decrease the blood supply. The clots travel to the lungs and cause pulmonary embolism
Joint problems may result due to a fracture that affects the cartilage at the end of the bones. This types of fracture extend to joints resulting in scarring which resultantly causes osteoarthritis
Bone fractures can be prevented by;
Maintain the amounts of Calcium and Vitamin D in the body to prevent bone-related diseases like osteoporosis which weakens the bone. Dairy foods like cheese, milk, and yogurt are good sources of these nutrients
Weight-bearing exercises can help strengthen the bones
Avoid tobacco and nicotine as they can increase the chances of bone fractures and delay the bone healing process
Drive safely and wear a seat belt to avoid accidents that result in bone injury and breakage
Bone fractures are classified into different types which include;
Open fracture: In an open or compound fracture, bone is broken and exposed to the external environment due to traumatic injury of the soft tissues of the skin.
Closed Fracture: The broken bone during closed fracture doesn't poke out of the skin as the soft tissues of the skin are intact.
Transverse Fracture: The bone is broken horizontally (perpendicular to its length).
Longitudinal fracture: The fracture that extends along the length of the bone vertically is known as a longitudinal fracture.
Oblique fracture: The bone is broken down at an angle across the width.
Segmental fracture: The bone is broken down into a number of pieces at more than one place leaving behind the pieces of bone.
Comminuted fracture: When the bone is broken at three or more places, it results in a comminuted fracture. Some segmental fractures may be comminuted.
Greenstick fracture: It is partial breakage of some part of the bone and the rest of the bone can bend.
Hairline fracture: It is a small crack or bruise within a bone that results from stress.