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Osteoporosis - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Osteoporosis in Urdu

یہ کمزور اور بھربھری ہڈیوں کی بیماری ہے۔ اس صورتحال میں ہڈیاں اس قدر کمزور ہو سکتی ہیں کہ معمولی جھٹکے جیسے کہ کھانسنے یا چھینکنے کی صورت میں فریکچر ہو سکتا ہے۔ خواتین مین یہ بیماری زیادہ عام ہے۔ ضروری ہے کہ بچپن ہی سے اچھی خوراک اور ورزش کا اہتمام کیا جئے تا کہ ہڈیوں کی بھربھرے پن سے بچا جا سکے

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Summary about Osteoporosis in English

In osteoporosis, bones become weak and fragile they are so fragile that falls and even minor stresses, such as bending or coughing, can cause fractures. Osteoporotic fractures occur most often at the hip, wrist or spine. Bone is a living tissue that is constantly degraded and replaced. Osteoporosis occurs when the formation of new bones cannot follow the extraction of old bones. Osteoporosis affects men and women of all races. White and Asian women - especially older women who were already at menopause are the most at risk. Medications, a healthy diet, and exercise can help prevent bone loss or strengthen fragile bones.

Symptoms of Osteoporosis

In the early stages of bone loss, there are usually no symptoms. However, when bones are weakened by osteoporosis, signs, and symptoms may appear, such as:

  • Back pain from breaking or rolling up the vertebrae
  • Loss of size over time
  • Lower posture
  • Bones break much easier than expected

Causes of Osteoporosis

Their bones are constantly renewing themselves - a new bone is created and the old bone is broken. When you are young, your body creates a new bone faster than it falls apart and the bone mass increases. Most people reach the maximum bone mass at the beginning of the twenties. As people age, the bone mass is lost faster than it was created. The likelihood of developing osteoporosis depends in part on the bone mass achieved in adolescence. The higher the bone mass, the more bones you have in the bank, and the less likely it is that you will suffer from osteoporosis with age.

Risk Factors of Osteoporosis

There are many factors that can increase the risk of osteoporosis, including age, race, lifestyle, health, and treatment.

Constant risk factors

Some risk factors for osteoporosis are out of control, including:

Gender. Women are prone to develop osteoporosis than male. 

Older. With age, the risk of osteoporosis increases.

Naturally. The risk of osteoporosis is higher if you are Caucasian or Asian. Having a parent or sibling with osteoporosis increases the risk, especially if your father or mother has a broken hip.

Height. Men and women with small body structures are at greater risk because they may have less bone mass that they can use during aging.

Hormone levels

Osteoporosis is more common in people who have too many or too few specific hormones in the body. Examples are:

Sexual hormones

Decreasing levels of sex hormones tend to weaken the bones. Lowering estrogen levels in postmenopausal women is one of the most important risk factors for the development of osteoporosis. Men experience a gradual decrease in testosterone levels with age. The treatment of prostate cancer, which lowers testosterone levels in men, and the treatment of breast cancer, which lowers estrogen levels in women, is likely to accelerate bone loss.

Thyroid problems 

Due to the excessive amount of thyroid hormone bone loss can occur. This can happen if the thyroid gland is overactive or if you take too much thyroid hormone to treat hypothyroidism.

Other glands 

Osteoporosis is also associated with hyperparathyroidism and adrenal glands.

Food factor

Osteoporosis is more common in people who:

Low calcium intake. 

The calcium deficiency, which lasts a lifetime, plays a role in the development of osteoporosis. Low calcium intake helps reduce bone density, early bone loss, and increased fracture risk.

Eating disorder. 

A strong restriction of food intake and underweight weakens the bones in both men and women.

Gastrointestinal Surgery 

Surgery to reduce the size of the stomach or remove part of the intestine limits the available surface area to absorb nutrients, including calcium.

Choice of life

Some bad habits can increase the risk of osteoporosis. Examples are:

A sedentary lifestyle.

 People who spend a lot of time in the seat are more likely to be exposed to osteoporosis than are more active. All exercises and support activities that promote balance and posture are good for the bones, but walking, running, jumping, dancing and lifting weights are particularly helpful.


The exact role of smoking in osteoporosis is not well understood, but smoking has been shown to contribute to bone weakness.

Preventive Measures of Osteoporosis

A good diet and regular exercise are essential to maintaining healthy bones throughout life.


Most people eat a lot of protein, others do not. Vegetarians and vegans can eat enough protein in their diet if they are deliberately looking for suitable sources such as soy, nuts, legumes, dairy, and eggs if permitted. Older adults may also eat less protein for a variety of reasons. Protein supplementation is an option.


Underweight increases the risk of bone loss and fractures. Obesity is known to increase the risk of hand and wrist fractures. Therefore, maintaining healthy body weight is beneficial for both bones and general health.


Men and women between the ages of 18 and 50 need 1,000 milligrams of calcium per day. This daily amount rises to 1200 mg when women are 50 years old and men are 70 years old. Good calcium sources are:

  • Low-fat dairy products

  • Dark green leafy vegetables

  • Potted salmon or sardines with bones

  • Soya products like tofu

  • Cereals fortified with calcium and orange juice

If you have difficulty getting enough calcium, you should take calcium supplements. However, too much calcium is associated with kidney stones. Although not clear, some experts suggest that too much calcium, especially supplements, can increase the risk of heart disease. The Institute of Medicine recommends that the total calcium intake from dietary supplements and combined diet should not exceed 2,000 milligrams per day for people over 50 years of age.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D improves the body's ability to absorb calcium and improves the health of bones in different ways. People can get the right amount of vitamin D from sunlight, but this may not be a good source if you live in a high latitude, if you are locked up at home, if you regularly use sunscreens, or if you avoid the sun altogether because of the danger of the skin, Cancer.

The researchers do not know the optimal daily dose of vitamin D for each person. A good starting point for adults is 600 to 800 international units (IU) per day in the form of food or dietary supplements. For people without other sources of vitamin D, especially in the case of limited sunlight, supplementation may be required. 


Exercise can help you develop strong bones and slow down bone loss. Regardless of when you begin training, you will use the bones, but you will benefit the most if you start exercising regularly, while you are young and continue exercising at the same time.