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Diphtheria - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Diphtheria in Urdu

یہ ایک مہلک بیماری ہے جو کہ ناک اور گلے کی جھلیوں کو نشانہ بناتی ہے۔ اس کی علامات میں کمزوری، بخار اور گلے کی خرابی شامل ہیں۔ اس کی سب سے اہم علامت سانس لینے مین دشواری ہے۔ ترقی یافتہ ممالک میں یہ بیماری نہ ہونے کے برابر ہے۔ ویکسین کی مدد سے اس بیماری سے تحفظ ممکن ہے۔

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Summary about Diphtheria in English

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection that usually attacks the mucous membranes of the nose, tonsils, and throat. Diphtheria usually causes a sore throat, fever, swollen lymph nodes and weakness. But the hallmark is a thick layer of gray tissue covering the neck that blocks the airways and causes problems in breathing. Diphtheria is extremely rare in the United States and other developed countries because of a common vaccine against this disease. Medications are available for the treatment of diphtheria. However, at an advanced stage, diphtheria can damage the heart, kidneys and nervous system. Even today diphtheria can be fatal - 3% of people with diphtheria die. The rate is higher in children under 15 years old.

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Symptoms of Diphtheria

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection that usually attacks the mucous membranes of the nose and throat. Nervous system and kidneys can be damaged by the diphtheria. Diphtheria usually begins two to five days after infection and may include:

  • A thick, gray covering spreading over throat and tonsils

  • Sore throat and hoarseness

  • Swollen lymph nodes (enlarged lymph nodes) in the throat

  • Shortness of breath or fast breathing

  • Rapid breath

  • Fever and chills

  • Trouble breathing

In some people, infection with a diphtheria-causing bacterium causes only a mild illness or no visible symptoms. Infected individuals who are unaware of their disease are referred to as carriers of diphtheria because they can spread the infection without its symptoms.

The other type of diphtheria may affect the skin and cause pain, redness, and swelling, wounds and skin infections. Gray film-covered wounds can also develop in case of diphtheria of the skin.

Causes of Diphtheria

The bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes diphtheria. Normally, C. diphtheriae proliferates on or near the surface of the pharyngeal mucosa. C. diphtheriae is distributed in three ways:

Air Droplets:

Sneezing or coughing in an infected person releases the mist of contaminated droplets that nearby people may inhale. C. diphtheriae. Diphtheria spreads in this way, especially in overpopulated areas.

Contaminated Personal Items:

People sometimes get affected by diphtheria by getting in touch with tissues used by an infected person, drinking from the unwashed glass of an infected person, or by other similar means of coming into contact with other objects that contain bacteria. You can deposit.

Contaminated Household Items:

In rare cases, diphtheria spreads to common household items such as towels or toys. You may also come in contact with a bacterium that causes diphtheria by touching the infected wound. People who have been infected with diphtheria and have not been infected by infected persons for six weeks, even if they have no symptoms.

Risk Factors of Diphtheria

People at an elevated diphtheria risk are:

  • Children and adults not yet vaccinated
  • People who live in a crowded or unhygienic condition

  • Anyone who goes to an area where diphtheria is endemic

Diphtheria is rare in the United States and Western Europe, where health officials have had children vaccinated against this disease for many years. However, diphtheria is still prevalent in developing countries where vaccination rates are low. In areas where vaccination against diphtheria is common, the disease mainly affects unvaccinated or under-vaccinated people traveling abroad or in touch with people in a developing country.

Preventive Measures of Diphtheria

Before antibiotics became available, diphtheria was a common disease in young children. Today, this disease is not only curable but can be prevented with a vaccine. Diphtheria vaccine is associated with tetanus and pertussis vaccines. The three-in-one vaccine is known as a vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis.

Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine is one of the vaccines recommended by doctors in the United States. The vaccine consists of a series of five injections normally given to children of this age in the arms or legs:

  • 2 months
  • 4 months
  • 6 months
  • 15 to 18 months
  • From 4 to 6 years old

Diphtheria vaccine effectively prevents diphtheria. However, side effects may occur. Some children may experience mild fever, drowsiness, or tenderness at the site of injection following injection. Ask your doctor how you can help your child minimize or mitigate these effects.

Types of Diphtheria

There are two types of diphtheria. These are:

  1. Respiratory diphtheria
  2. Cutaneous diphtheria

Respiratory diphtheria affects the throat, nose, and tonsils. Whereas cutaneous diphtheria affects the skin and presents in the form of skin ulcers and swelling.