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Diabetes - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Diabetes in Urdu

انسانی جسم خون میں موجود شکر سے توانائی بناتا ہے۔ ذیابیطس ایک ایسا مرض ہے جس میں جسم شکر کو استعمال نہیں کر پاتا اور اس باعث خون میں شکر کی سطح بڑھ جاتی ہے جو کہ جسم کے دیگر اعضا کو نقصان پہنچاتی ہے۔ ذیابیطس کی وجہ سے دیگر کئی امراض لاحق ہو سکتی ہیں جن میں نابینا پن، دل کی بیماریاں، گردوں کے مسائل اور دیگر کئی عوارض شامل ہیں۔ یہ مرض دنیا بھر میں تیزی سے پھیل رہا ہے۔ ایک اندازے کے مطابق دنیا بھر میں بتالیس کروڑ سے زائد افراد اس مرض میں مبتلا ہیں۔

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Summary about Diabetes in English

 There are many misconceptions about diabetes. For example “eating too much sugar cause diabetes”. Let's find out what is diabetes, symptoms, and causes of diabetes. Diabetes is a disease that is normally associated with a high level of sugar in the blood. Normally the pancreas in the body produces insulin to control the blood sugar levels. But in diabetes pancreas produce very little or unable to produce insulin. As a result, the level of sugar in the blood increase. The causes of both types are different. In type 1 diabetes immune system in the body mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the body and destroys them. In type 2 pancreas produces insulin but the body is unable to use it properly. The researchers were unable to find the reasons why the body becomes unable to use insulin. An unhealthy lifestyle, excess weight, and a sedentary lifestyle can cause sugar level to exceed normal blood sugar level.

The normal sugar level after fasting is up to 100mg/dl. Fasting sugar level should be checked after at least 8 hours of having no food whereas 2 hours after eating it should be 70-140mg/dl.  

Diabetics need to have certain parameters checked regularly for avoiding complications and checking their health status. HbA1c is one of the important indicators for the healthcare of people with diabetes. It shows an average fo your blood sugar levels over the period of the last two to three months. HbA1C test should be repeated after every two-three months in diabetics.

Gestational Diabetes:

Developing hyperglycemia or type 2 diabetes mellitus in pregnancy is called gestational diabetes. It poses a huge risk for expectant mothers and the child as well. The incidence of gestational diabetes increases with age and becomes a maximum after the age of 45. As much as 5-% of women affected with gestational diabetes tend to develop type 2 diabetes 5-10 years after delivery.

Women affected with GDM are prone to several complications as well which include excessively high body weight babies, hypertension and obstructed labor. Most cases of GDM are seen in underdeveloped countries due to a lack of awareness and limited maternal care. Anyone suffering from GDM should stay in touch with their gynecologist and healthcare team to avoid adverse effects on health.


Symptoms of Diabetes

There are two types of diabetes. Some sign and symptoms of both types include: 

  • Frequent urination 
  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Blurry vision 
  • Cuts or sores that do not heal properly
  • Excessive hunger
  • Recurrent infections
  • Presence of ketones in the urine

 But in diabetes, type 1 people experience irritability and weight loss. In diabetes-type2 people feel numbness and tingling in their hands. 

Causes of Diabetes

Cause of Type 1 Diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune disorder. The immune system starts producing antibodies against the pancreas beta cells and destroys it.

Cause of Type 2 Diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes is caused by an inability of the body to use insulin efficiently. The amount of sugar in the blood is controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is produced by the pancreas (the gland behind the stomach). When the food is digested and enters the bloodstream, insulin releases glucose from the blood and introduces it into the cells, where it is broken down to produce energy. However, if you have diabetes, your body can not turn glucose into energy. In fact, either there is not enough insulin to transmit glucose, or the insulin that is produced does not function properly. Although you can not change your lifestyle to reduce the risk of Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity.

Risk Factors of Diabetes

There are many risk factors for diabetes. There are chances of diabetes type 1 in people whom parents and sibling having diabetes. Type 1 diabetes can appear at any age but commonly its signs appear at childhood or adolescence. Genetics is considered a major contributor to the cause of diabetes type 1 diabetes.

There is no treatment of diabetes type 1. In type 1 insulin injected into the body regularly. People regularly inject insulin into the body. Some people use insulin pumps. Insulin pumps supply little amount of insulin in the body through small tubes.

  Diabetes type 2 can be controlled through diet or exercise. People having diabetes needs extra support for controlling diabetes.  According to the American diabetic association, depression is one of the risk factors of diabetes. Other risk factors include:

  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Obesity 
  • Unhealthy eating habits
  • Alcoholism
  • Genetics

Preventive Measures of Diabetes

Diet and exercise are used as treatment and prevention of diabetes type 2. According to the medical news today if a doctor diagnoses a person with type 2 diabetes, he or she will often recommend a lifestyle change to promote weight loss and overall health. The doctor may refer to diabetics or pre-diabetics to a dietician. A specialist can help a person with diabetes to lead an active and balanced lifestyle and control their condition.

The steps a person can take to adopt a lifestyle with diabetes include:

  • Eat a diet rich in fresh, nutritious foods, including whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, low-fat dairy products, and healthy sources of fat, such as nuts.

  •  Avoid high-sugar foods that provide empty calories or other nutritional values, such as carbonated drinks, deep-fried foods, and high-sugar desserts.

  • Do not drink too much alcohol or drink less than one drink a day for women or two drinks a day for men.

  • Perform at least 30 minutes of exercise for at least 5 minutes a week, e.g. B. Hiking, aerobics, cycling or swimming.

  • People can also take steps to reduce the body mass index (BMI), which can help some people with type 2 diabetes to cope with a disease without medication.

  • The slow and consistent goals of losing weight are more likely to help a person achieve long-term benefits.

Types of Diabetes

Diabetes has two types:

1- Type 1 

2- Type 2.

 In diabetes type 1 individuals unable to produce insulin and in diabetes type 2 individual body produces insulin but their body unable to respond to the insulin. But in both these types, the level of sugar in the blood is high. This high sugar level produces complications in the body.