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Endocrine Disorders - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

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Summary about Endocrine Disorders in Urdu

اینڈوکرائن عوارض جسم کی اینڈوکرائن غدود سے متعلق بیماریوں ہیں۔ اینڈوکرائن سسٹم ہارمونز تیار کرتا ہے ، جو خون کے بہاؤ کے ذریعے بھیجے جانے والے کیمیائی اشارے ، یا رطوبت ہوتے ہیں۔ ہارمونز جسم کو میٹابولک عمل کو کنٹرول کرنے میں معاون ہوتے ہیں ، جیسے بھوک ، سانس لینے ، نمو ، سیال کا توازن ، نسائی اور مذکر خصوصیات ، اور وزن پر قابو-ان عوارض میں اکثر وسیع پیمانے پر علامات پائے جاتے ہیں ، جسم کے متعدد حصوں کو متاثر کرتے ہیں ، اور ہلکی سے شدید تک کی شدت میں بھی ہوسکتے ہیں۔ علاج مخصوص عارضے پر منحصر ہوتا ہے لیکن اکثر مصنوعی ہارمونز کا استعمال کرتے ہوئے ہارمون بیلنس کو ایڈجسٹ کرنے پر مرکوز ہوتا ہے۔

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Summary about Endocrine Disorders in English

Endocrine disorders are diseases related to the endocrine glands of the body. The endocrine system produces hormones, which are chemical signals sent out, or secreted, through the bloodstream. Hormones help the body regulate processes, such as appetite, breathing, growth, fluid balance, feminization and virilization, and weight control.

These disorders often have widespread symptoms, affect multiple parts of the body, and can range in severity from mild to very severe. Treatments depend on the specific disorder but often focus on adjusting hormone balance using synthetic hormones.

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Symptoms of Endocrine Disorders

symptoms depend on the type of endocrine disorder;

For diabetes;

  • Excessive thirst or hunger
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent urination
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Unexplained weight loss or gain
  • Vision changes

Acromegaly:

  • Abnormally large lips, nose or tongue
  • Abnormally large or swollen hands or feet
  • Altered facial bone structure
  • Body and joint aches
  • Deep voice
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Headaches
  • Overgrowth of bone and cartilage and thickening of the skin
  • Sexual dysfunction, including decreased libido
  • Sleep apnea
  • Vision impairment

Addison's disease:

  • Depression
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Hyperpigmentation of the skin (bronze appearance)
  • Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose)
  • Loss of appetite
  • Low blood pressure (hypotension)
  • Missed menstrual periods
  • Nausea, with or without vomiting
  • Salt cravings
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Weakness (loss of strength)

Hyperthyroidism:

  • Diarrhea
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Fatigue
  • Goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland)
  • Heat intolerance
  • Irritability and mood changes
  • Rapid heart rate (tachycardia)
  • Tremors
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Weakness (loss of strength)

Causes of Endocrine Disorders

  • Acromegaly, an overproduction of growth hormone, and prolactinoma, an overproduction of prolactin hormone, resulting from damage to the pituitary gland

  • Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome, disorders relating to changes in levels of hormones produced by the adrenal glands

  • Diabetes mellitus, which arises when the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin or when the body cannot respond to the insulin that is present

  • Environmental or nutritional factors, such as a lack of iodine in hypothyroidism, which can affect hormone production

  • Genetic factors, which may play a role in endocrine disorders, especially with diabetes and other disorders, such as autoimmune thyroiditis, or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

  • Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid), Graves’ disease (a type of hyperthyroidism resulting in excessive thyroid hormone production), and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (an autoimmune disease resulting in hypothyroidism), all resulting from problems with the thyroid gland

  • Tumors, since the underlying cause of the endocrine disorder, can be linked to growth or tumor of the gland

Risk Factors of Endocrine Disorders

  • Elevated cholesterol levels.
  • Family history of endocrine disorder.
  • Inactivity.
  • Personal history of autoimmune disorders, such as diabetes.
  • Poor diet.
  • Pregnancy (in cases such as hyperthyroidism)
  • Recent surgery, trauma, infection, or serious injury.

Types of Endocrine Disorders

Common endocrine disorders include

  •  diabetes mellitus
  •  acromegaly (overproduction of growth hormone)
  •  Addison’s disease (decreased production of hormones by the adrenal glands)
  •  Cushing’s syndrome (high cortisol levels for extended periods of time)
  •  Graves’ disease (type of hyperthyroidism resulting in excessive thyroid hormone production)
  •  Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (an autoimmune disease resulting in hypothyroidism and low production of thyroid hormone)
  •  hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid)
  •  hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
  •  and prolactinoma (overproduction of prolactin by the pituitary gland).

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Acromegaly, an overproduction of growth hormone, and prolactinoma, an overproduction of prolactin hormone, resulting from damage to the pituitary gland

  • Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome, disorders relating to changes in levels of hormones produced by the adrenal glands

  • Diabetes mellitus, which arises when the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin or when the body cannot respond to the insulin that is present

  • Environmental or nutritional factors, such as a lack of iodine in hypothyroidism, which can affect hormone production

  • Genetic factors, which may play a role in endocrine disorders, especially with diabetes and other disorders, such as autoimmune thyroiditis, or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

  • Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid), Graves’ disease (a type of hyperthyroidism resulting in excessive thyroid hormone production), and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (an autoimmune disease resulting in hypothyroidism), all resulting from problems with the thyroid gland

  • Tumors, since the underlying cause of the endocrine disorder, can be linked to growth or tumor of the gland

  • hormonal therapy
  • surgical treatment in case of any tumor