Thyroid Gland Diseases - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Summary about Thyroid Gland Diseases in Urdu

تھائیرائیڈ گلینڈ جسم میں موجودغدودں میں ایک ہے جو کہ کئی اہم ہارمونز پیدا کرتا ہے۔ اس گلینڈ کی کارکردگی میں کمی بیشی سے جسم کے نظام میں کئی خرابیاں پیدا ہو سکتی ہیں۔ اس باعث سامنے آنے والی بیماریوں میں گوئٹر، تھائیرائیڈ نوڈیولز، اور گریویز ڈیزیز وغیرہ شامل ہیں۔ 

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Summary about Thyroid Gland Diseases in English

The thyroid gland is a small gland at the base of your neck that secretes several important hormones that regulate your metabolism. Over or under production of thyroid hormones can lead to conditions called hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism respectively. Some of the most common thyroid gland disorders are:

  • Hashimoto's disease
  • Goiter
  • Graves disease
  • Thyroid nodules
  • Hyper and hypothyroidism
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Symptoms of Thyroid Gland Diseases

When there is something amiss your thyroid functioning you may come across several distinct symptoms. These are different for different disorders of the thyroid gland. Such as for:

Cardiac Symptoms:

in case of hypothyroidism, you may feel slowed down heart rate whereas an increased heart rate can be caused by hyperthyroidism.

Energy Level Alterations:

People affected with hypothyroidism may feel tired, lethargic, and depressed on the other hand those experiencing hyperthyroidism can have difficulty falling asleep, can be irritable, restless, and anxious as well.

Hair Fall:

An imbalance in thyroid hormone production can cause increased hair fall. usually, hair regrows as these conditions are treated. 

Body Temperature:

Abnormalities in thyroid hormone levels can alter the body's ability to regulate its temperature. Those with hypothyroidism may feel cold more than normal and ones with hyperthyroidism tend to sweat more and feel averted to heat.

Hypothyroidism can also cause dryness of skin, brittle nails, constipation, tingling sensation, and menstrual abnormalities. 

Other symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism include vision alterations, diarrhoea, irregular menses, and trembling of hands.

Causes of Thyroid Gland Diseases

Thyroid problems can be caused by:


  • Inflammation of thyroid gland induced by bacteria or virus.
  • Autoimmune disorders such as Graves disease and Hashimoto's disorder.
  • Deficiency of iodine.
  • Formations of non-cancerous lumps inside the thyroid gland.
  • Cancerous tumours of the thyroid gland.
  • Treatments such as radiation therapy, surgeries, and some medicinal compounds.
  • Some genetically inherited disorders.


Risk Factors of Thyroid Gland Diseases

Risk for thyroid diseases increases if you are:

  • A female
  • More than 50 years old
  • Have a family history of thyroid problems
  • Exposed to radiations
  • Using medicines like amiodarone, lithium, and interferon alpha.
  • Smoking
  • ave low Iodine intake

Preventive Measures of Thyroid Gland Diseases

Thyroid disorders are not preventable mostly however in cases where it is caused due to iodine deficiency use iodine supplementation may help. Other thyroid disorders cannot be prevented because some of these are autoimmune disorders as well. 

Types of Thyroid Gland Diseases

Thyroid disorders include:

  • Hypothyroidism 
  • Hyperthyroidism 
  • Goiter
  • Thyroid nodules 
  • Hashimoto's disorder
  • Graves disease
  • Thyroid cancer

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