Hypothyroidism - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Summary about Hypothyroidism in Urdu

ہایپووتائیرائرمیز (کمزور تائرائیڈ) کی صورت میں تھائرائڈ گلینڈ مخصوص ہارمون نہیں پیدا کرتا ہے. ابتدائی مرحلے میں ہائپوتھائیڈرایڈیزم کسی بھی نظر آنے والے علامات کا سبب نہیں بنتا. وقت کے ساتھ، صحت کی مسائل جیسے کہ موٹاپا اور بانجھ پن سامنے آ سکتے ہیں۔
مصنوعی تھائیڈرو ہارمون کے ساتھ علاج عام طور پر سادہ، محفوظ اور مؤثر ہے.

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Summary about Hypothyroidism in English

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough specific hormones. Hypothyroidism can not cause any visible symptoms at an early stage. Over time, untreated hypothyroidism can cause a range of health problems, including obesity, joint pain, infertility, and heart disease. To diagnose hypothyroidism, accurate thyroid function tests are available. The treatment with a synthetic thyroid hormone is usually simple, safe and effective. 

Hypothyroidism is an abnormal state of the thyroid gland in which it fails to produce enough amounts of its hormones due to iodine deficiency, autoimmune or pituitary disorder or any damage from surgery, radiation, and infection. This condition is diagnosed by the following symptoms. It is generally treated by hormonal therapy.

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Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

Symptoms depend on the severity of the disease. Problems tend to develop slowly, often over several years. First, you may notice the symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue and weight gain. Or you can just associate it with aging. However, if your metabolism continues to decrease, you can develop obvious problems.

  • fatigue

  • Greater sensitivity to cold.

  • constipation

  • increase in weight

  • Swollen face

  • Ronquera

  • muscle weakness

  • High blood cholesterol

  • Tenderness and stiffness.

  • Joint pain, stiffness or swelling

  • Menstrual periods heavier than normal or irregular

  • Thin hair

  • Decreased heart rate

  • depression

  • Impairment of memory

  • Dry skin

  • Enlarged thyroid (goiter)

Causes of Hypothyroidism

If your thyroid does not produce enough hormones, the balance of chemical reactions in your body can be changed. Various causes may be involved, including autoimmune diseases, treatments for hyperthyroidism, radiotherapy, thyroid surgery, and certain medications. Your thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located just under Adam's apple on the front of the throat. The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), have a major impact on your health and affect every aspect of your metabolism. These hormones also affect the control of vital signs such as body temperature and heart rate.

When thyroid glands do not produce enough hormones hypothyroidism is occurs.

Hypothyroidism can be due to several factors including:

Autoimmune Disease 

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common hypothyroidism of autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases occur when your immune system produces antibodies that attack your own tissues. It occurs due to the attack of the antibodies of the immune system. Sometimes this process affects the thyroid gland. Scientists do not know why this happens, but it is likely to be a combination of factors, such as genes and an environmental trigger. However, this happens, these antibodies affect the thyroid's ability to produce hormones.

Overreaction to the treatment of hyperthyroidism. 

Due to the hyperthyroidism people gets treatment to reduce the amount. The purpose of these treatments is to restore thyroid function to normal. But sometimes the correction of hyperthyroidism can lead to an excessive reduction in the production of thyroid hormones, leading to permanent hypothyroidism.

Thyroid surgery 

Complete disappearance or a large part of the thyroid can slow down or stop hormone production. In this case, you need to take thyroid hormones for life. Irradiation of head and neck cancer can affect the thyroid gland and cause hypothyroidism.


A number of medications can contribute to hypothyroidism. If you are taking medication, ask your doctor about the effects on the thyroid gland.

Less commonly, hypothyroidism can be due to one of the following causes:

Congenital disease 

Defective thyroid is one of the reasons for hypothyroidism in babies. In most cases, the thyroid gland has not developed normally for unknown reasons, but some children have a hereditary form of the disease. Babies with congenital hypothyroidism often appear normal at birth. This is one of the reasons why most states today require neonatal thyroid screening.

Pituitary gland Disorder 

A relatively rare cause of hypothyroidism is the inability of the pituitary gland to produce sufficient thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), mostly due to a benign pituitary tumor.


Some women develop hypothyroidism (postpartum hypothyroidism) during or after pregnancy, often because they produce antibodies to their own thyroid gland. If left untreated, hypothyroidism increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and pre-eclampsia, a condition that significantly increases a woman's blood pressure during the last three months of pregnancy. It can also seriously affect the development of the fetus.

Iodine Deficiency 

Iodinated micronutrients, found mainly in seafood, algae, plants that grow in iodine-rich soils and iodized salt, are essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Very little iodine can lead to hypothyroidism, and too much iodine can increase hypothyroidism in people already affected. Iodine deficiency is common in some parts of the world, but the addition of iodine to table salt has virtually eliminated this problem in the United States.

Risk Factors of Hypothyroidism

Although anyone can develop hypothyroidism, your risk increases if you:

  • You are a woman

  • You are over 60 years old.

  • Thyroid family history.

  • Diabetes or celiac disease. They were treated with radioactive iodine or antithyroid drugs.

  • Radiation in the neck or upper part of the ribcage.

  • Have undergone thyroid surgery (partial thyroidectomy)

  • Being pregnant in the last six months or giving birth to a child.

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