Burkitt Lymphoma - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Summary about Burkitt Lymphoma in Urdu

یہ نان ہوجکن لمفوما کی ایک قسم ہے جو کہ بیٹا سیلز کا کینسر ہے۔ انسانوں میں ہونے والے کینسر کی تمام اقسام میں یہ سب سے زیادہ تیزی سے پھیلنے والا ٹیومر مانا جاتا ہے۔ کیموتھراپی کے ذریعے اس کا علاج ممکن ہے۔

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Summary about Burkitt Lymphoma in English

Named after British surgeon, Denis Burkitt who first diagnosed this disease in African children, Burkitt lymphoma is known to be the fastest growing tumor in humans. This disease affects the immune system and affects B-cells. This disease has a high fatality rate if left untreated. Immunodeficiency is considered as the prime reason for this problem. aggressive chemotherapy has been shown to improve the chances of long term survival. Although this disease is fairly rare outside Africa however people affected with HIV virus at an elevated risk of developing this cancer.


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Symptoms of Burkitt Lymphoma

Symptoms of Burkitt lymphoma include fever, night sweats, and decreased body weight. Other symptoms vary for different types of this lymphoma. 

Endemic:

Distorted facial bones, swelling, and rapid increase in the size of lymph nodes that remain non-tender are the characteristic symptoms of Burkitt lymphoma. Lymph nodes grow at a very fast, rate some times these double in size as fast as in 18 hours.

Sporadic:

This type of Burkitt lymphoma shows symptoms like:

  • Swollen abdomen
  • Swollen tonsils
  • Distorted facial bones
  • Increase in size of the thyroid

Immunodeficiency Associated:

Symptoms for this are the same as for Sporadic Burkitt lymphoma.


Causes of Burkitt Lymphoma

Exact cause of this lymphoma is not known so far. However different risk factors play a vital role in the development of this disease.

Risk Factors of Burkitt Lymphoma

Biggest risk factor for Burkitt lymphoma is the HIV virus. It is also regarded as a differentiation factor for AIDs. Children in Africa specifically male kids between the age of 4-7 are also at an elevated risk due to endemic conditions.

Preventive Measures of Burkitt Lymphoma

There is no one sure shot way to prevent this disease. However, you can reduce risk by staying safe from factors that expose you to HIV virus. Use of contaminated syringes and unprotected sex are one of the biggest transmission modes for the HIV virus.

Types of Burkitt Lymphoma

There are several types of Burkitt lymphoma recognized so far. These include:

Endemic: This yype is specifically found to affect African children aging from 4 to 7 years. The incidence of this is greater in male children.

Sporadic: This is the type of Burkitt lymphoma which occurs outside Africa. It accounts for a small percentage of around 1-2% of lymphomas in adults. In the US and Europe, this is estimated to account for 40% of pediatric lymphomas diagnosed.

Immunodeficiency associated: This type of Burkitt lymphoma is most commonly found in patients affected by the HIV virus. It is also common in people on immunosuppressant therapy or those affected with congenital disorders that compromise immunity.



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