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Tooth decay - Symptoms, Causes, and Prevention

Tooth Decay in Urdu

دانتوں کے سڑنے سے مراد یہ ہے کہ جب پلاک مین موجود مٹھاس تیزاب میں تبدیل ہو جاتا ہے تو وہ دانتوں کو  نقصان پہنچانے کا سبب بنتا ہے ۔ اگر دانتوں پر سے پلاک کو صاف نہ کیا جاۓ تو اس سے دانتوں مین سوراخ بن سکتا ہے اور مسوڑھوں کی بیماری کا بھی سبب بن سکتا ہے ۔ دانتوں میں جمع ہونے والا گند ، اور مسوڑھوں میں پس دانتوں میں سڑن اور سوراخوں کا سبب بنتی ہے ۔ دنیا بھر میں دانتوں کا سڑنا اور سوراخ ہونا سب سے عام بیماریوں میں سے ایک ہے ۔یہ بیماری ہر عمر کے افراد کو ہو سکتی ہے-

اس بیماری کی شدت ہی اس کے علاج کے طریقہ کار کو طے کرنے کا فیصلہ کرتی ہے ۔ اگر اس بیماری کی شناخت ابتدائی مرحلے پر ہو جاۓ اور سوراخ بننے سے قبل علاج کروا لیا جاۓ تو اس صورت میں فلورائڈ ٹوتھ پیسٹ اور ماوتھ واش کا استعمال کافی ہوتا ہے ۔ اسی وجہ سے دانتوں کے ماہر ڈاکٹر کے پاس باقاعدگی سے جانے کا مشورہ دیا جاتا ہے ۔ لیکن اگر دانتوں میں سوراخ بن گیا ہو اور اس کا انیمل بھی خراب ہو جاۓ تو پھر علاج کے طریقہ کار کچھ اس طرح سے ہو سکتے ہیں
اگر سوراخ بن چکا ہے تو اس کو بھرنا ضروری ہوتا ہے ۔ سڑن کو صاف کر کے ڈاکٹر دانت کو اپنی اصل شکل میں لا کر اس میں مٹیریل بھر دیتے ہیں
اگر دانت بہت بری طرح سڑ چکا ہو اور ٹوٹ پھوٹ کا شکار ہو جاۓ تو پھر اس کے علاج کے لیۓ کراون چڑھا دیا جاتا ہے جس کو کیپ بھی کہتے ہین یہ دانت کے ظاہری حصے کو نئي شکل دے دیتا ہے
اگردانت کا اندرونی گودا متاثر ہو تو اس صورت میں روٹ کنال کروانا ضروری ہو جاتا ہے جس میں متاثرہ گودے کو نکال دیا جاتا ہے
اگر دانتوں کی جڑیں زيادہ متاثر ہوں تو پھر دانت کا نکالنا ہی آخری حل ہوتا ہے ۔ اس کے بعد اس دانت کی جگہ نیا دانت لگا دیا جاتا ہے-

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Summary about Tooth Decay in English

Tooth decay occurs when sugars in dental plaque are converted to acid, causing damage to the tooth. If plaque is allowed to build upon the teeth, it can cause cavities (dental caries) and gum disease. Dental abscesses, pus-filled collections at the ends of teeth or in the gums, can form. Cavities and tooth decay are two of the most common health issues worldwide. Cavities can affect anyone with teeth, including infants. Children, teenagers, and older adults are particularly susceptible.

Symptoms of Tooth Decay

Symptoms of tooth decay don't usually appear until you have a cavity or an infected tooth. When this occurs, you may experience the following:

  • Toothache
  • Swelling of the gums around a painful tooth
  • You may experience bad breath or a bad taste in your mouth
  • Spots on your teeth can be white, grey, brown, or black
  • Tooth sensitivity. The person could experience increased sensitivity in the  tooth area, especially when he/she exposes their teeth to a hot or cold  stimulus
  • A bad taste in the mouth

Causes of Tooth Decay

Tooth decay can affect anyone, including children. Children have a higher risk of tooth decay than adults because their teeth are still growing. The minerals in new teeth are not as vital as those in older teeth, making it easier for acids to eat away at them. Bottle mouth is tooth decay caused by sugar in milk, formula, or juice in babies put to bed with a bottle. Bacteria that cause tooth decay are not present in the mouths of newborns. Adults who share spoons, forks, or other utensils with them, on the other hand, can spread bacteria to them.

The following factors increase your chances of developing tooth decay:

  • Not brushing and flossing your teeth regularly
  • Being unable to see a dentist for regular checkups and cleanings
  • Eating high-sugar and high-carbohydrate foods, which feed the bacteria in your mouth
  • There isn't enough fluoride in your diet
  • Having insufficient saliva, which helps to protect your teeth from decay by washing away food and harmful sugars
  • Having diabetes is a severe condition
  • Smoking cigarettes or using spit (smokeless) tobacco

Treatment

The severity of the problem determines the best treatment for tooth decay. If tooth decay is detected early enough before a cavity forms, it may be possible to prevent it with fluoride toothpaste or fluoride treatments. That is one reason why you should visit your dentist regularly. You may need one or more treatments if the decay has eaten through the enamel, such as:

  • If a cavity has formed, a filling is required. After the decay is removed, the dentist fills the hole and restores the tooth to its original shape with a material.
  • If your tooth is severely decayed and damaged, you may need a crown. A crown, also known as a cap, is an artificial replacement for a tooth's visible portion.
  • If your tooth's pulp is infected, you'll need a root canal. A root canal is a procedure that removes a tooth's diseased pulp.
  • If the tooth's root is severely damaged, it must be extracted. A bridge or an implant may be used to replace the missing tooth.

Risk Factors of Tooth Decay

While any person could get tooth cavities, experts have observed that there are certain factors by which they can assess how much at risk a person is. Obviously, one important factor is the type of diet that a person consumes on a daily basis. If an individual consumes food that gets easily stuck in the teeth, he/she is more vulnerable to developing tooth cavities. These foods include sugary products like ice cream, cakes, donut and bread. Regularly drinking sugary drinks also puts the person at a higher risk. Then, meal or snacking frequency is also an important factor. Those who eat or drink sugary items more frequently throughout the day open even more chances for the bacteria to attack the teeth.

When mothers put a bottle filled with formula liquid or juice or milk in their baby’s mouth, they are actually allowing bacteria to use this sugary input on the teeth to nest there and cause tooth decay. This kind of tooth decay is known as baby bottle tooth decay.

Other very well-known aspect that can determine whether and how a tooth decays is the brushing habit. If the individual does not brush properly and adequately, they risk getting a tooth cavity. Same is the case with not having a good enough fluoride intake. However, if the person uses the standard toothpastes, those which have fluoride, regularly enough, they can avoid tooth decay through this route.

Lastly, scientists have also found heartburnto also play a contributory role in tooth decay progression. Heartburn is a condition in which the stomach acid rises into the mouth. This acid can then dissolve the teeth enamel as well and open the doors for tooth decay.

Preventive Measures of Tooth Decay

Preventive measures are usually aimed at minimizing the causes and risks. One can lower the risk of tooth decay by properly brushing their teeth at least two times during the day, especially at night. The toothpaste they use should contain fluoride in it. They should pay proper attention to all the teeth’s surfaces which are involved in biting and grinding, and not just the most frontal surface.

Another important preventive measure is flossing after meals in order to prevent or break away plaque formation between the teeth. Flossing is particularly important as it reaches those tooth areas which the toothbrush does not.

Finally, one should try to have a healthy diet that consists of vegetables and fruits and not just sugars. One should also prefer those foods which do not stick to the teeth.

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