Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms, Types, Causes and Prevention

Summary about Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Urdu

اٹینشن ڈیفیسیٹ یائپر ایکٹیویٹی ڈس آڈر سے متاثرہ افراد توجہ کے ارتکاز اور اضطراری رویوں پر قابو نہیں رکھ سکتے۔ اکثر یہ بیماری بچوں میں تشخیص کی جاتی ہے جو کہ بہت زیادہ اچھل کود اور بے ہنگم رویوں کا باعث بنتی ہے۔ اس بیماری سے متاثرہ بچے اور بڑے غیر معمولی طور پر حرلت پیں رہتے ہیں، بیت زیادہ بولنا، توجی مرتکز نہ کر سکنا، اور دی گئی ہدایات پر عمل پیرا نہ ہو سکنا اس بیماری کی چند علامات میں شامل ہیں۔ 

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Summary about Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in English

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is characterized by a high level of difficulty for a person to focus on and manage behaviors that are impulsive. The person having this disorder remains restless and unnervingly active most of the time. This is also the disorder that has been most frequently diagnosed in the juvenile population.
Even though its signs start appearing in childhood, this order can carry on throughout adolescence and reach through to the person’s adulthood. While symptoms of hyperactivity get better with age, inattention, disorganization, and substandard impulse control persist throughout teenage and remain in adulthood.

Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

People with ADHD show an ongoing pattern of three different types of symptoms: Three categories of symptoms are there of ADHD: Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Inattention

The person

  • Gets distracted easily
  • Does not follow orders or instructions
  • Fails to listen properly
  • Does not pay proper attention and end up making errors continuously
  • Finds it hard to recall everyday chores
  • Finds it difficult to plan everyday chores
  • Does not like doing tasks in which they have to sit still
  • Loses things on a regular basis
  • Daydreams a lot

Hyperactivity

The person

  • Typically moves around or bounces in their seat
  • Does not remain seated for long either
  • Finds it difficult to play quietly
  • Is always involved in moving around, like running, sprinting or climbing
  • Prefers to talk a lot
  • Seems as if they are being driven by a motor.


Impulsivity

  • They cannot wait for their turn
  • Give out answers haphazardly
  • They also frequently interrupt people around them.

Risk Factors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

There are a number of factors and causes that are being studied by the academic community. The latest research points towards the gene and environment interactions as the primary characteristics of determinants of ADHD. Researchers have found that genetics, cigarette or drug usage throughout pregnancy, contact with toxins from the environment including lead and lower birth weight all contribute to the materialization of ADHD.

Preventive Measures of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

While there is currently no direct remedy for ADHD, plans to prevent and treat ADHD normally focus on lowering the expression of the symptoms and heightening the level of functionality of the individual. Medications are used for the treatment of ADHD. However, they are not without side effects and it is necessary that the right medication is chosen for the right person; the choice of medication would depend on the individual characteristics of patients.
Therapies have also been tried for people having ADHD but the psychological literature provides no evidence for their effectiveness. However, if psychotherapy is coupled with the medications, the effectiveness of the treatment plan has been shown to rise.

Types of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Diagnoses of ADHD are very different and so are the plans for treatment and prevention. As per the American Psychiatric Association, there are three types of ADHD:

Inattentive Type

To be diagnosed with the inattentive type of ADHD, the individual must display at least six of the nine symptoms that follow:

  • Not paying attention to detail Paying no attention to details
  • Erring carelessly
  • Finding it difficult to concentrate and remain fixed on a task
  • Failing to listen attentively
  • Displaying an inhibited ability to follow orders or comprehend them
  • Trying not to come across more effort-requiring tasks
  • Failing to stay focused
  • Forgetting easily
  • Frequently losing important stuff that would be required to accomplish tasks.

Hyperactive-Impulsive Type

To be diagnosed with the hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD, the individual must display at least six of the nine symptoms that follow:


    • Fiddling around
    • Wriggling
    • Not properly-remaining seated; often standing up
    • Running and sprinting around or trying to climb in times that are inappropriate
    • it difficult to play silently
    • Excessively conversing
    • Talking out of turn or blurting out Not waiting for their turn to talk
    • Frequently interrupting others
  • It seems as if they are being driven by a motor.

Combined Type

The combined type, which has both inattentive and hyperactive-impulse ADHD symptoms, is the most frequently diagnosed ADHD type.

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