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Epilepsy - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Epilepsy in Urdu

مرگی دماغ میں ہونے والے برقی ڈسچارج میں خلل پیدا ہونے کی وجہ سے ہوتی ہے۔ اس بیماری میں اچانک بے ہوشی، پٹھوں کا کھچ جانا اور سانس کی دقت شامل ہیں۔ مرگی کے دوروں کی کیفیت ہر مریض میں مختلف ہو سکتی ہے۔ یہ اس بات پر منحصر ہے کہ برقی خلل دماغ کے کس حصے میں واقع ہوا ہے۔ مرگی کا دورہ پڑنے کی صورت میں مکمل یا نیم بے ہوشی، جھٹکے لگنا اور اعجا کا بے اختیار پھڑکنا شامل ہیں۔ ان دوروں کے تین مراحل ہوتی ہیں جن میں مریض مختلف علامات سے گزرتا ہے۔

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Summary about Epilepsy in English

Epilepsy (Mirgi) affects many people due to various reasons. If you or any person in your family has Epilepsy, seek medical assistance from an epilepsy doctor in Pakistan immediately to avoid complications. Fortunately, Marham has a complete panel of qualified and best Epilepsy doctors in Pakistan. If you want to consult a specialist for epilepsy treatment in Pakistan, you can book an online appointment with an epilepsy specialist in Pakistan through Marham.

What is Epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder affecting the electrical activity of the brain. Epilepsy can affect males and females at an equal rate. The disease can start at any age but most commonly occurs in childhood. At least two seizures without any known trigger in 24 hours are required for an epilepsy diagnosis. The epilepsy treatment in Pakistan is needed in some people for a lifetime while the disease goes away in some and the treatment is discontinued. The best dr for Epilepsy in Pakistan provides diagnosis and treatment for epilepsy.

Diagnosis of Epilepsy

Epilepsy in Pakistan can be diagnosed by certain diagnostic tests that include;

  • Neurological exam to evaluate motor abilities

  • Blood tests to detect infectious or genetic causes 

  • EEG (Electroencephalogram) 

  • MRI

  • CT scan

These tests detect abnormal electrical activities and injuries in the brain to identify epilepsy and its causes.

Treatment for Epilepsy in Pakistan

Epilepsy can be treated by neurologists using antiepileptic drugs based on the type, frequency, and cause of the seizures. For epilepsy that don’t get away with medication, surgery may be required for treatment.

Additionally, psychological counseling and a ketogenic diet can provide an added benefit in the treatment of epilepsy.

Risk for developing Epilepsy

  • Age: Epileptic seizures can occur at any age but the risks are higher in children and older adults

  • Family history: Genetic factors such as a family history of epilepsy or brain damage can increase the chances of developing the disease

  • Traumas: Brain injury during accidents can increase the risks of developing epilepsy at some stage of life

  • Underlying diseases: Certain neurological diseases like dementia or meningitis may contribute to the increased risk of developing epileptic seizures

Complications associated with Epilepsy

Epileptic patients may require serious attention and counseling to manage their routine activities as the disease may result in certain complications including;

  • Status epilepticus: Frequent seizures which are lasting more than 5 minutes without any time for recovery in between the consecutive seizures, may result in permanent brain damage resulting in death

  • Emotional complications: Epileptic patients may become more sensitive and develop strong emotional reactions and anger issues. Depression and suicidal thoughts are also very common in such patients

  • Risk while driving: The risk of getting a seizure anytime during the day may increase the chances of accidents while driving

  • Injuries: Under an epileptic attack, the patient may fall down anywhere increasing the chances of crucial injuries resulting in permanent immobilities.

You can consult with the best doctor through Marham to treat the patient after Epilepsy. Our epilepsy specialists are fantastically excellent at doing this. You may consult online with a great team of the best Epilepsy doctors in Pakistan.

Symptoms of Epilepsy

The following signs and symptoms are indicative of  an epileptic disease;

  • Jerking or twitching of legs, arms, or upper body

  • Loss of awareness

  • Stiff muscles

  • Severe shivering

  • Loss of coordination

  • A seizure lasting more than 5 minutes

  • Confusion

Causes of Epilepsy

Epilepsy can occur in anyone due to a number of causes which include;

  • Genetic factors (family history of abnormality in any area of the brain).

  • A traumatic injury to the brain such as during an accident may result in epilepsy.

  • Defects in the brain may lead to altered brain signals.

  • Infections affecting the brain such as meningitis or HIV may cause the disease.

  • Epilepsy may have congenital causes like a brain injury during the prenatal period.

  • Stroke or lack of oxygen.

  • Drug abuse or withdrawal may affect the electrical signals of the brain.

Risk Factors of Epilepsy

Some factors may increase the risk of epilepsy:

Age: Epilepsy is more common in children and the elderly, but the disease can occur at any age.

Family history: If you have family epilepsy, you may increase the risk of an epileptic seizure.

Head injuries: Head injuries are responsible for some epilepsy cases. You can reduce risk by wearing safety belts while riding a car, riding a bicycle, skiing, riding a motorcycle, or other high-risk activities.

Stroke and other vascular diseases: Stroke and other diseases of the blood vessels (blood vessels) can cause brain damage that can lead to epilepsy. There are many ways to reduce the risk of these diseases. These include limiting alcohol consumption and avoiding smoking, eating and exercising regularly.

Dementia: In older people, dementia is one of the reasons for epilepsy.

Brain infection: Inflammation or spinal cord infection of meningitis increase the risk of epilepsy.

Attacks in childhood: High fever during childhood can sometimes accompany seizures. Children with high fever usually do not develop epilepsy. The risk of epilepsy increases when the child has a long stroke.


Preventive Measures of Epilepsy

Certain epileptic causes can be prevented which reduces the chances of developing the disease. These include;

  • Maintain good hygiene to avoid getting infections that affect the brain

  • Be careful while driving, swimming, and other such activities to avoid head injuries

  • Practice prenatal care to avoid injuries in the fetus during pregnancy.

Types of Epilepsy

Epileptic seizures are of different types depending on the symptoms, each requiring a different treatment. The common types of seizures include;

  • Focal seizures: When a seizure appears as a result of an abnormality in one single part of the brain, they are called focal seizures. They may (complex partial seizure) or may not (simple partial seizure) cause a loss of consciousness but the emotions and physical state of the person in altered during the seizure

  • Generalized seizures: During generalized seizures, the electrical activity in all parts of the brain is altered it is further classified as;

  • Absence seizure: This is a type of seizure common in children. During the seizure, the patient starts staring into space with the absence of blinking or other movements. It lasts for a few seconds and can occur multiple times during the day

  • Myoclonic seizures: These are brief jerks that affect the legs, arms, and upper body

  • Atonic seizure: The seizure affects the legs mostly so a person falls down during the seizure. It causes a loss of muscle control

  • Clonic seizure: Repeatitiive twitching activity during clonic seizures affecting the neck, legs, and arms. The jerks follow a rhythmic pattern during these seizures

  • Tonic seizures: These cause stiffness in muscles affecting the back, legs, and arms. It lasts for a few seconds and most commonly occurs during sleep

  • Tonic-clonic seizures: Also known as grand mal seizure, this is the most dangerous of all the seizure types. It causes abrupt loss of consciousness with severe twitching and jerking of legs and arms. Bladder incontinence and tongue biting are common during this type of seizure.