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Dementia - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Dementia in Urdu

ڈیمینشیا کا لفظ دماغ پر اثرانداز ہونے والے بہت سے امراض کے لیے ایک مجموعی اصطلاح کے طور پر استعمال کیا جاتا ہے۔ ڈیمینشیا کی ابتدا ہر فرد میں مختلف طریقے سے ہو سکتی ہے۔ ڈیمیشیا کا شکار ہونے والے اکثر افراد کی یادداشت متاثر ہوتی ہے۔ یادداشت کی یہ کمی متاثرہ فرد کی ذندگی کے تمام پہلوئوں کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ یادداشت میں تبدیلیوں کے ساتھ ساتھ رویے اور مزاج کی تبدیلیاں بھی ڈیمینشیا سے متاثرہ افراد میں سامنے آتی ہیں۔ ڈیمینشیا کی سب سے عام صورت الزائمر ڈیزیزہے۔ 

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Summary about Dementia in English

Marham provides the list of top 10 Dementia doctors in Pakistan. We are trusted by our dementia specialists who are known for their quality services, and treatments based on their medical experience, practice locations, availability hours, patient reviews, and price range. 

What is Dementia?

Dementia is a group of diseases that describes thinking, reasoning, and memory impairments. The disease interferes with a person’s everyday activity to think, behave, and respond. This decline in cognitive abilities covers a wide range of mental health diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. The severity of the disease varies from person to person. Dementia may be mild in some but it compromises basic life activities in others.

Neurologists — doctors who specialize in disorders of the brain and nervous system — are often consulted to diagnose dementia in Pakistan. Geriatric psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, and geriatricians may also be able to diagnose dementia.

Diagnosis of Dementia

The neurologist evaluates the condition based on the symptoms and collects family and medical history. The neuro-physician prescribes certain tests for a detailed overview of the disease to decide on the optimum treatment approach. Some of the diagnostic tests include;

  • Blood tests: Blood tests are performed to rule out the other conditions that may cause dementia such as vitamin B deficiency

  • Genetic tests: Genetic test helps in the evaluation of the family history of the patient which contributes significantly to the development of the disease

  • Psychiatric evaluation: The neurologist performs this evaluation to check for depression and other mental disorders that may cause dementia

  • Brain scans: Detailed brain imaging helps the neurologist to examine the inside of the brain which gives an insight into the brain's condition

  • Cognitive neurological exam: A questionnaire is prepared for the patient to solve which helps in evaluating the language, thinking, reasoning, and learning abilities.

Treatment of Dementia

About 20% of the cases of dementia are reversible. The dementia doctors in Pakistan may use certain medications to treat the disease. The treatment options include;

  • Some drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease are used to treat dementia.

  • Medicines like acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used to slow down the disease progression including cognitive changes.

However, if the disease is irreversible, the therapy focuses on the management of the disease and the symptoms

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Symptoms of Dementia

Some of the common symptoms associated with dementia include;

  • Memory loss

  • Poor decision making

  • Difficulting in reading and writing

  • Slurred speech

  • Losing interest in everyday activities

  • Hallucinations

  • Loss of coordination

  • Personality changes 

  • Depression

  • Communication problems

Causes of Dementia

The causes of dementia may be the primary causative factors of the disease or some chronic medical conditions. Some of the probable causes of dementia include;

  • Degenerative neurological disorders Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Alzheimer’s disease

  • Brain injury

  • Vitamin B complex and Vitamin E deficiency

  • Certain infections like HIV, UTI, or syphilis may impart symptoms similar to dementia

  • Vascular disorders

  • Certain metabolic endocrine disease 

  • Certain medicines like antianxiety and antidepressants may impart dementia-like symptoms

  • Brain tumor

Risk Factors of Dementia

The chance of developing dementia is equally present in all individuals however, there are certain specific conditions increasing the risk of developing dementia which includes;

  • Ages: One of the most contributing risk factors for dementia is old age ( >65 years)

  • Genetic factors: If the family history indicates dementia in close relatives, the risk of developing the disease increases

  • Depression: Certain mental disorders like depression may contribute to the development of dementia

  • Brain injury: Severe traumatic head injuries can increase the risk of the disease if occurs continuously

  • Stroke: Brain shock or stress contributes to an increased risk of developing dementia

  • Brain infections such as meningitis: Bacterial infections affecting the brain may result in developing dementia

  • Diabetes: Certain chronic health conditions such as diabetes increase the chance of developing neurodegenerative disorders

  • Sleep disorders

  • Smoking: The ratio of dementia is higher in smokers as compared to the nonsmokers

  • heart health issues: Certain conditions associated with heart, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol levels may increase the risk of developing the disease

Preventive Measures of Dementia

Some of the factors contributing to the development of dementia are uncontrollable while certain factors are preventable. The prevention of dementia includes;

  • Exercise regularly

  • Involve in healthy activities that engage the brain

  • Communicate with people 

  • Eat healthily

  • Avoid smoking

Types of Dementia

Dementia is a group of mental disorders and is classified into the following different groups;

  • Primary dementia: This is the type of disease in which dementia itself is the main illness

  • Secondary dementia: During this type, dementia develops due to the other underlying medical conditions

  • Reversible dementia-like symptoms: During this type of illness, the symptoms similar to dementia are caused by other health conditions but are actually not the disease

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