Acne - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Summary about Acne in Urdu

ایکنی جلد پر دانوں اور مہاسوں کی صورتحال کا نام ہے۔ جلد کے مسام مردہ خلیوں اور چکنائی کے باعث بند ہو جاتے ہیں اور ان میں انفیکشن پیدا یونے سے جلد پر دانوں کی شکایت سامنے آ سکتی ہے۔ ایکنی کندھوں، سینے، کمر کے اوپری حصے اور چہرے کی جلد کو متاثر کر سکتی ہے۔ نوجوانوں میں ایکنی کی شکایت عام ہے۔ ایکنی کے کئی موثر علاج موجود ہیں لیکن ایکنی کی شکایت علاج کے بعد دوبارہ بھی سامنے آ سکتی ہے۔ حاملہ خواتین میں بھی ہارمونز کی تبدیلیوں کے باعث ایکنی کی شکایات سامنے آ سکتی ہیں۔ موجودہ دور مہں ایکنی کے علاج کے کئی طریقے متعارف کروائے جا چکے ہیں۔ ناکافی صفائی یا علاج میں غفلت برتنے سے ایکنی کی نوعیت شدید ہو سکتی ہے۔ 

Summary about Acne in English

Acne is a dermal (skin) problem. It occurs when the skin pores get clogged with oil and the dead cells on the skin. Usually it appears in the form of pimples, whiteheads or blackhead and in areas with the most sebaceous glands like the shoulders, chest, upper back and face. Acne occurs the most on teenagers.

While acne treatment is possible, acne might still persist. The healing process is slow and normally when one fades away, newer pimples and bumps appear.

Scarring of the skin is possible. However, the emotional distress is much graver than the scarring. Although, early treatment can turn out very effective.

 

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Symptoms of Acne

Acne symptoms are according to their types:

  • Whiteheads are small, whitish, protruding spots
  • Blackheads are small as well, but blackish
  • Small reddish and soft bumps
  • Appearance of pimples
  • Firm and large, painful, lump-like growth under the skin
  • Painful lumps filled with pus can also surface below the skin

 

Causes of Acne

There are multiple factors that cause acne. The sebaceous glands actually start producing too much sebum. As the sebum (or oil) accumulates on the skin over time, it groups together with dead skin cells. This grouping then eventually fills the skin pores. The skin pores are then clogged and become vulnerable to irritants from the outside. In the case of whiteheads, the pores being clogged are follicular pores. When this plugged hair follicle or skin pore becomes larger due to the dead skin cells and oil, bumps and lumps appear. This makes the skin ever more susceptible to trapping outside bacteria. These bacteria go on to cause inflammation all over the infected area. The place where the inflammation occurs determines what kind of acne will appear.

Risk Factors of Acne

Research has identified multiple factors that make a person more vulnerable to acne. A much documented factor is heredity; an individual is likely to get acne if her/his parent(s) had acne. Pressure on certain parts of the skin could also cause acne breakouts. Examples include the pressure felt with helmets, collars, belts etc. Certain medications might also contribute to acne, especially steroids and drugs containing bromide and iodide. The job also matters as those who work around substances like cutting oil are more susceptible to acne breakouts. Furthermore, certain cosmetics clog the skin pores as well. One should be very careful when choosing which product to buy. It is recommended that those who are at a higher risk for acne use cosmetic products which have water as their first or second ingredient.

Preventive Measures for Acne

The first and foremost measure one could implement is washing the face two times every day in order to wash off the irritant particles, dead skin and the accumulated sebum. It is important to note that acne products themselves contain skin-drying ingredients, so one should moisturize the skin a little in order to avoid the skin peeling away. Makeup is not recommended when acne breaks out. However, if makeup is necessary, it should be washed off at the end of the day. Exercising regularly is also recommended for the skin’s health.

Types of Acne

Acne appears in various forms. The following are some of them:

  • Basic acne lesion. It appears when sebum and dead skin cells clog a hair follicle.
  • Blackheads. These are basically comedones (clogged hair follicles) that are open at the skin’s surface. They contain excess sebum and skin cells.
  • Whiteheads. Whiteheads are also comedones, but they are closed at the skin’s surface.
  • Pustules. Pustules are inflamed pimples. They look like whiteheads but are surrounded by a red ring.
  • Cysts. These are lesions that look like boils. They are large and filled with pus. These can also be painful and require immediate treatment. 

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