Fungal Nail Infection - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Summary about Fungal Nail Infection in Urdu

انسانی جسم مٰں فنگس کے انفیکشن اس وقت سامنے آتے ہیں جب یہ جسم کے مدافعتی نظام کے قابو سے باہر ہو جاتے ہیں۔ آپ کے بالوں میں خشکی، اتھلیٹس فٹ، جلن اور خارش والی ریش یہ سب فنگس کے پیدا کردہ انفیکشن ہیں۔ جب یہ فنگس ناخنوں کو متاثر کرتی ہے تو اس بیماری کو فنگل سکن انفیکشن کا نام دیا جاتا ہے۔ فنگس کے انفیکشن کی وجہ سے ناخنوں کی شکل اور ہئیت میں تبدیلی آنے لگتی ہے۔ اس کا علاج کافی سستا اور آسان ہے۔ اینٹی فنگل کریموں کا استعمال اس بیماری سے نجات دلانے میں معاون ہے۔

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Summary about Fungal Nail Infection in English

In humans, fungal infections happen when the invading fungus takes over some area of the body and is too much for the immune system to handle. This infection may occur in the skin, hair or nails. At skin, it may cause itchy red rashes like in athletes foot. In case of hair infection, it appears as dandruff. And when infect the nails it deforms their normal shape. Antifungal creams and ointments with some anti-inflammatory or painkilling drugs are used for treatment. The treatment for fungal nail infection is fairly easy and economical.

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Symptoms of Fungal Nail Infection

Nail fungus infection includes the following symptoms:

  • Nails thicken
  • They grow brittle and crumbly
  • Their shape also changes; they become ragged and distorted
  • The color also dulls and becomes either more darker or yellow

Further symptoms include:

  • Hyperkeratosis in which scales appear under the skin
  • Lateral onychomycosis in which the yellowish or whitish streaks form
  • Proximal onychomycosis in which yellow specks form on the nail
  • Onycholysis in which the nails separates from its bed

 

Causes of Fungal Nail Infection

The cause of fungal infections is implied in the name: presence of fungi. These microorganisms thrive in places that do not have sunlight.

Dermatophytes are the fungi group that is usually associated with the nail fungal infections. Nevertheless, there is a possibility that these infections could be caused by certain yeasts and molds.

The pathogens that are primarily responsible for nail fungal infections typically come into the skin via small cuts or through the small gaps between the nail bed and the nail itself. These fungi then grow in appropriately warm and damp conditions provided by the nail.

Risk Factors of Fungal Nail Infection

Anyone can get a fungal nail infection, but they are more common in men than women and the elderly than the young. Some additional traits or factors raise the risk of nail fungal infection, these include: While anybody could get this infection, men and older individuals are more likely to acquire it.

Other risk factors include nails that grow slow, more inhibited blood circulation, heavy sweating and working in a damp or humid environment. Those individuals who wear items like artificial nails, socks and shoes that are less airy and tight footwear in general are also more vulnerable.

If it runs in the person’s family they are more likely to catch it. Furthermore, any condition that involves a weakened or less efficient immune system could open the doors for a fungal infection.

The reason why elder people are more vulnerable lies in the aging process itself; they have a more diminished blood circulation along with nails that grow more slowly as their age progresses.

 

Preventive Measures of Fungal Nail Infection

It is important that hand and foot hygiene is maintained to prevent fungal nail infections. This hygiene includes keeping nails clean and short, wearing footwear that is more breathable or which allows more ventilations. Furthermore, rubber gloves should be used during dishwashing in order to avoid too much exposure to water.

Nail picking and biting should also be avoided. If the individual goes to a manicure/pedicure salon, they should make sure that the tools being used are properly sterilized. The nail clipper with which the person cuts her/his nails should also be clean

Types of Fungal Nail Infection

  • Distal subungual onychomycosis (DSO). This is the most frequently occurring kind of fungal nail infection and affects the nail bed. The same fungi that are responsible for most athlete’s foot cases are also responsible for DSO.
  • White superficial onychomycosis (WSO). WSO is the fungal nail infection type that is only second in incidence rates to DSO. WSO affects the nail’s top layer. The treatment procedures are very efficient and easy.
  • Candida onychomycosis. More commonly known as the nail’s yeast infection, candida onychomycosis can occur on the nail and the bordering skin. However, this typer rarely occurs.
  • Proximal subungual onychomycosis (PSO). This type is more recurrent in people who have the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Dermatophytes are the identified cause.

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