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Migraine - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Migraine in Urdu

میگرین کو اردو میں درد شقیقہ یا آدھے سر کا درد بھی کہا جاتا ہے۔ اس درد سے بچے اور بڑے سبھی متاثر ہو سکتے ہیں لیکن خواتین اور بڑی عمر کے افراد میں اس کی شکایت زیادہ عام ہے۔ میگرین کی کئی وجوہات ہو سکتی ہیں اور ہر فرد میں اس کی وجہ مختلف ہونے کے باعث علاج کے لیے ضروری ہے کہ اس کی درست وجہ معلوم کی جائے۔ میگرین کا درد آدھے یا پورے سر میں بھی ہو سکتا ہے۔ اکثر اوقات یہ سر کے پچھلے یا سامنے والے حصے میں بھی ہو سکتا ہے۔

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Summary about Migraine in English

In the United States, nearly 40% of migraine sufferers suffer from depression. The risk of anxiety, bipolar disorder, and panic are also higher in migraine sufferers. Researchers are still studying the links between mental illness and migraine. Although the anticipation of painful symptoms in some people may lead to depression and anxiety. Experts believe that mental illness often exceeds the simple effect of migraine. The production of the chemical serotonin in the brain is implicated in both migraine and depression. 

Migraines can cause pulsations, usually on one side of the head. it caused nausea, extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Migraine attacks can cause severe pain for hours or days. And it can be so severe the pain. As aura known warning symptoms may occur before or with a headache. These can be flashes of light, dead spots or tingling on a face or in the hand or leg. Talk to your doctor about the treatment options for a migraine if you cannot find relief. Appropriate medicines, combined with self-help solutions and lifestyle changes, can be helpful.

Symptoms of Migraine

There are four different migraine phases. You can not always go through each phase if you have a migraine.


This phase begins up to 24 hours before a migraine. They have early symptoms like appetite, unexplained mood swings, uncontrolled yawning, fluid retention, and increased urination.


If you have this phase, you can see flashing or shiny lights or zigzag lines. You may have muscle weakness or feel touched or caught. Aura can occur just before or during a migraine.


Migraine usually starts gradually and becomes more serious. Usually, it causes lances or pulsating pain, often on one side of the head. But sometimes you can have migraines without a headache. Other symptoms of migraine may include

  • Increased sensitivity to light, noise and unpleasant odors

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Increased pain on movement, coughing or sneezing

Postdrome (after a headache)

After a migraine, you may feel exhausted, weak and confused. It can take up to a day. A migraine is more common in the morning. People often wake up with them. Some people have migraines at predictable times, such as premenstrual menstrual periods or weekends after a week of stressful work.

Causes of Migraine

Although the causes of migraines are not understood. In a migraine, environmental and genetic factors played a significant role. Migraine can be caused by changes in the brainstem and its interactions with the trigeminal nerve, the main pathway of pain. There may also be disorders in brain chemistry - especially serotonin, which regulates pain in the nervous system. Researchers are still studying the role of serotonin in migraine.

The serotonin level drops during migraine attacks. This can cause the trigeminal nerve to release substances called neuropeptides that reach the outer crust of the brain (meninges). The result is migraine pain. Other neurotransmitters play a role in migraine pain, including the calcitonin gene-associated peptide (CGRP).

Risk Factors of Migraine

Several factors make you more susceptible to migraines, including:

Family history

If you have a family member with migraines, you have a good chance of developing them.


Migraines can begin at any age, although the former often occurs during puberty. Migraines tend to peak in 1930 and become progressively weaker and less frequent over the next few decades.


Women have three times more migraines. Headaches usually affect more boys than young girls. But during puberty and later, more girls are affected.

Hormonal changes

If you are a migraine sufferer, you may find that a headache starts just before or just after the start of the period. They can also change during pregnancy or menopause. Migraines usually improve after menopause. Some women report that migraine attacks begin during pregnancy or that their seizures worsen. In many cases, seizures improved later in pregnancy or did not occur. A migraine often comes back during work.

Preventive Measures of Migraine

Until recently, experts have recommended avoiding typical migraine triggers. Some triggers are inevitable and avoidance is not always effective. However, some of these lifestyle changes and coping strategies can help reduce the number and severity of a migraine:

Percutaneous stimulation of the retro-orbital nerve (t-SNS)

it is a device (Cefaly) like a headband attached to electrodes. This device was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a preventive treatment for migraine. There were fewer migraines in the studies of those who used the device.

Learn to handle it

Recent studies show that a strategy called Learning to Management (SLD) can help prevent migraines. In this practice, you will gradually be exposed to headache triggers that help you to desensitize them. Long term care may also be associated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. 

Create a consistent daily routine

Determine your daily routine with regular sleep patterns and meals. Also, try to control stress.

Regular Exercises

Regular aerobic exercise reduces tension and can prevent migraines. If your doctor agrees, choose the aerobic exercise you want, including walking, swimming, and cycling. Warm-up slowly, as intense and sudden exercise can cause headaches. Regular exercise can also help you lose weight or maintain a healthy weight, and obesity is considered a migraine factor.

Reduces the effects of estrogen

If you are a woman with a migraine and estrogen that causes or aggravates headaches, you should avoid or reduce the medications that contain estrogen.