دماغ کے اردگرد جھلیوں کی ایک پرت موجود ہوتی ہے جن کو میننجیز کہا جاتا ہے۔ ان جھلیوں میں انفیکشن اور سوجن کی وجہ سے ہونے والی بیماری کو میننجائٹس، دماغ کا بخار یا گردن توڑ بخار بھی کہا جاتا ہے۔ یہ بیماری بیکٹیریا یا وائرس کی وجہ سے ہو سکتی ہے۔ وائرل میننجائٹس زیادہ عام ہے۔ اس مرض کی علامات عمر اور بیماری کی وجہ کے مطابق ہر مریضمیں مختلف ہو سکتی ہیں۔ گردن کے پٹھوں میں کھچائو، سردی لگنا، قے اور اسہال کے علاوہ دیگر علامات بھی سامنے آ سکتی ہیں۔
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Meningitis is an inflammation of the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord due to a bacteria, virus, or something else. Physical and psychological symptoms include high fever, neck stiffness, irritability, nausea, and diarrhea. It meddles with normal life activities with serious health issues. Therefore, it must be treated at the earliest. Sometimes, a patient’s recovery without treatment is common, yet a doctor’s consultation is necessary. Kids and teenagers are more prone to meningitis. If experiencing minor symptoms.
Consult the best doctors for treating meningitis in Pakistan enlisted at Marham based on their qualifications, experience, location, and fee.
Bacterial Meningitis is a serious disease, leading to a high mortality rate; still, recovery chances with permanent disabilities exist. Streptococcus pneumonia, Group B Streptococcus, Neisseria meningitides, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli are some of the causative agents.
Viral Meningitis is caused by non-polio enteroviruses, mumps, herpesviruses, measles, influenza, arboviruses, or lymphocytic choriomeningitis. It attacks people having weak immune systems and babies.
Non-Infectious Meningitis transmits through pathogens among the masses or is caused by certain cancers and medications, lupus, brain surgery or head injury, etc.
Fungal Meningitis is caused by the spread of fungal infections, including Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, Candida, Blastomyces, or Histoplasma
Symptoms of meningitis vary as per various types, yet all of them have some similarities, including:
Irritability, headache, confusion, light sensitivity, and drowsiness
Skin rash and bruising
Increased or decreased body temperature
Neck stiffness and seizures
Meningitis is caused by multiple factors, counting in bacteria, viruses, pathogens, fungi, parasites, and amoeba, which may enter the human body via:
Human contact through kissing, intercourse, saliva, or utensil sharing
Drinking or swimming in meningitis-infected water
Walking or sitting on soil infected with meningitis fungi
Food contaminated with bacteria or virus
Early diagnosis of meningitis leads to early treatment, which protects against greater loss. For diagnosis, doctors:
Examine the medical history
Get a physical exam
Refer to blood tests
Take an X-Ray/CT Scan/ MRI
Doctors treat this disease through:
Antibiotics and steroids kill disease-causing agents and heal the body
Hydrating fluids against dehydration
Oxygen mask for providing adequate oxygen to the body
Meningitis can be avoided by opting following preventive measures:
Wash hands often
Never share your personal items, including toothbrush, makeup products, nail cutter, scissors, ear piercings
Don’t share your food or drinks
Cover your mouth when coughing or sneezing
Improve your protein, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, and fibers intake
Go for pasteurized and cooked dairy
Go for immunization
Stay away from meningitis patients
Delayed treatment of meningitis may lead to several complications, including:
Coma, seizures, stroke, and paralysis
Brain or spinal cord damage
The first symptoms of meningitis can mimic the flu. Symptoms can appear for hours or days. Possible signs and symptoms in people over 2 years of age are:
Strong headaches that seem different from normal
Headache with nausea or vomiting.
Confusion or difficulty concentrating.
Drowsiness or difficulty waking up
No appetite or thirst
Rash (sometimes as meningococcal meningitis)
Bacteria that enter the bloodstream of the brain and spinal cord cause acute bacterial meningitis. But this can also happen if bacteria penetrate directly into the meninges. This can be caused by an ear infection or sinusitis, a skull fracture or, more rarely, following certain surgeries. Multiple bacterial strains can cause acute bacterial meningitis, mostly:
This bacterium is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in infants, toddlers, and adults in the United States. It usually causes pneumonia or infections of the ear or sinuses. A vaccine can help prevent this infection.
This bacterium is another major cause of bacterial meningitis. These bacteria usually cause upper respiratory infection but can cause meningococcal meningitis when they enter the bloodstream. It is a highly contagious infection that affects mostly adolescents and young adults. Local epidemics can occur in student dormitories, boarding schools, and military bases. A vaccine can help to prevent infections.
Haemophilus influenzae (Haemophilus).
The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) was once the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children. However, new vaccines against Hib have drastically reduced the number of cases of this type of meningitis.
Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria).
These bacteria can be found in unpasteurized cheese, hot dogs and cold cuts. Meningitis most common in pregnant women, newborns, the elderly and people with weakened immune systems. Listeria can cross the placental barrier and end of pregnancy infections can be fatal to the baby.
Viral meningitis is usually benign and often disappears by itself. In the United States, most cases are caused by a group of viruses called enteroviruses. These viruses occur more frequently in late summer and early autumn. Viruses such as herpes simplex virus, HIV, mumps, West Nile virus and others can also cause viral meningitis.
The risk factors for meningitis are:
Skip the vaccines.
The risk increases for people who have not complied with the recommended immunization plan for children or adults.
Most cases of viral meningitis occur in children under five years of age. Bacterial meningitis is common in children under 20 years of age.
Live in a community.
College students living in residential homes, military base staff, and boarding and daycare children are at increased risk for meningococcal meningitis. This is probably due to the fact that the bacterium spreads through the airways and spreads rapidly in large groups.
Pregnancy increases the risk of listeriosis, an infection caused by Listeria bacteria, which can also cause meningitis.
Compromised immune system.
AIDS, alcoholism, diabetes, the use of immunosuppressants and other factors that affect your immune system also make you more susceptible to meningitis. If your spleen has been removed, your risk also increases. Anyone who does not have a spleen should be vaccinated to minimize this risk.
Bacteria or viruses that cause meningitis can spread through coughing, sneezing, kissing, cookware, toothbrush or cigarette. These steps can help prevent meningitis:
Careful hand washing prevents the spread of germs. Teach children to wash their hands frequently, especially before eating and having spent time in a public place or pet after using the bathroom. Show them how to wash and rinse their hands vigorously.
Do not share drinks, food, straws, kitchen utensils, lip balms or toothbrushes. Teach children and adolescents not to share these items with others.
Keep your immune system calm, work out regularly and eat healthy foods rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
Cover your mouth.
If you need to cough or sneeze, cover your mouth and nose. If you are pregnant, be careful with the food. Reduce the risk of listeriosis by cooking meat, including sausages, at 74 ° C (165 ° F). Avoid cheese with unpasteurized milk. Choose a cheese that is clearly labeled as pasteurized milk.