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Pneumonia - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Pneumonia in Urdu

  1. نمونیا پھیپھڑوں کے انفیکشن کی ایک مہلک یماری ہے جس میں جسم میں آکسیجن کی کمی واقع ہو جاتی ہے۔ اس باعث اعضا ناکارہ ہونے یا زندگی کی بازی ہارنے جیسے سنگین نتائج سامنے آ سکتے ہیں۔ نمونیا کا سب سے آسان شکار چھوٹے بچے اور عمر رسیدہ افراد ہوتے ہیں۔ ویکسین کی مدد سے اس بیماری سے حفاظت ممکن ہے۔

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Summary about Pneumonia in English

Marham is Pakistan's leading healthcare platform that provides the list of the best doctors for Pneumonia in   Pakistan. You can book an appointment with the top Pneumonia specialist Pakistan or call to know the Pneumonia treatment price in Pakistan. We are trusted by our best doctors who are known for their quality services and treatments based on medical experience, practice locations, availability hours, patient reviews, and fees.

What is Pneumonia?

Pneumonia is an infection that infects air sacs in one or both lungs. Airbags can become filled with fluid or pus (purulent substance) and cause cough with mucus or pus, fever, chills, and shortness of breath. Different organisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, can cause pneumonia. Pneumonia can be serious and can range from mild to deadly. This situation is particularly serious for infants and young children, for people over 65, as well as for people with health problems or a weak immune system.

Many viruses and bacteria that cause pneumonia can already live in the nose or throat. Your immune system usually keeps you away from your lungs. However, your immune system can be weakened because it is already fighting another disease or due to some other factors like organ transplantation. In addition, immune power decreases with age. Therefore, the risk of pneumonia is higher if you are over 65 years.

Causes of Pneumonia

Pneumonia is caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can also be contagious (spread through person-to-person contact). The causes of pneumonia include;

  • Community-acquired pneumonia is caused by bacteria, mycoplasmas, fungi, or viruses (influenza virus).

  • Hospital-acquired pneumonia spread through contact i.e through contaminated ventilators, using a contagious tongue depressor, etc.

  • Aspiration pneumonia is caused by inhalation of eatables or vomiting in the airways instead of swallowing.

Treatment for Pneumonia

The treatment therapy for pneumonia depends on the cause of the disease. The therapy includes;

  • Antibiotics: Bacterial pneumonia is treated using oral or IV antibiotic therapy depending on the patient's response to the therapy and the extent of the damage.

  • Antivirals: Viral pneumonia is treated by anti-viral therapy.

  • Cough Relievers: Cough syrups are prescribed by the doctor for symptomatic relief of cough and mucus production.

  • Painkillers and Antipyretics: Other treatment approaches imply the use of antipyretics for treating fever and painkillers like ibuprofen and acetaminophen for chest pain.

For critically ill patients, hospitalization may be required if the inflammation spreads across one or both the lungs, and for patients who require ventilation.

Complications associated with Pneumonia

If left untreated or unresponsive to the treatment, pneumonia results in;

  • Sepsis

  • Pleural effusion

  • Lungs failure

  • Chronic lung damage

Risk of developing Pneumonia

Pneumonia can occur in anybody but the risk of the infection increases in;

  • People working in hospital settings

  • Old age (>60 years)

  • Infants and newborns

  • Smokers

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Symptoms of Pneumonia

The symptoms of pneumonia range from mild to severe and depend on factors such as the type of microbes that caused the infection, as well as age and general health. Mild signs and symptoms often resemble colds or flu, but last longer.

The symptoms of pneumonia can be:

  • Pain in the chest while breathing or coughing

  • Confusion or change in mental awareness (in adults 65 years and older)

  • A cough that can produce mucus

  • Tiredness

  • Fever, sweating, and tremors

  • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea

  • Dyspnea

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Causes of Pneumonia

Pneumonia is classified according to the causes of the disease which include;


Streptococcus pneumonia is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia in the United States. This type of pneumonia can occur alone or after a cold or flu. It can affect the part (spot) of the lungs, a condition called pneumonia.


This type of pneumonia is most common in people with chronic health problems or weak immune systems, as well as in people who inhale large doses of these organisms. Fungi that cause them are found in soil or bird droppings and vary according to geographical location.


Some viruses that cause colds and flu can cause pneumonia. Viruses are the leading cause of pneumonia in children under the age of five. Viral pneumonia is usually mild. In some cases, it can be very serious.

Risk Factors of Pneumonia

Pneumonia can hit anyone. The two most vulnerable age groups are:

  • Children under 2 years

  • Older Adults over 65 years

Other risk factors are:


The risk of pneumonia is higher if you are in an intensive care unit, especially if you are using a machine that helps you breathe (the ventilator).

Chronic illness:

If you have asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or heart disease, the likelihood of pneumonia is greater.


Smoking damages the body's natural defenses against bacteria and viruses that cause pneumonia.

Suppressed or Weak Immunity:

People with HIV / AIDS and others who have undergone organ transplantation or who have received chemotherapy or who have undergone long-term steroid use are at an elevated risk of pneumonia.

Preventive Measures of Pneumonia

Pneumonia can be prevented by the following measures:

Vaccination: Vaccines are available to prevent certain types of pneumonia and influenza. Doctors recommend pneumonia vaccines for children under 2 years old and children 2-5 years old, particularly those at risk for pneumococcal disease.

Good hygiene: To protect yourself against respiratory infections that sometimes cause pneumonia, wash your hands regularly or use alcohol-based disinfectants.

Quit smoking: Smoking damages the natural defense mechanisms of the lungs against respiratory infections.

Healthy lifestyle: Regular exercise and healthy eating habits keep your immunity intact.

Types of Pneumonia

Hospital-acquired pneumonia:

Some people have pneumonia in the hospital because of a different disease. Hospital pneumonia can be serious because the bacteria that cause it are more resistant to antibiotics and the people who receive them are already sick. People who wear respiratory equipment (ventilators) commonly used in intensive care units are more exposed to this type of pneumonia.

Acquired Pneumonia:

Pneumonia contracted during health care is a bacterial infection that occurs in people in long-term healthcare facilities or clinics, including renal dialysis centers. Like hospital-acquired pneumonia, health-induced lung disease can also be caused by bacteria that is more resistant to antibiotics.

Aspiration Pneumonia:

Pneumonia is aspirated when you inhale food, drink, vomit or saliva into your lungs. Aspiration is more likely when something interferes with a normal choking sensation, such as brain injury or swallowing problems or excessive consumption of alcohol or drugs.

Social pneumonia

This type of pneumonia Occurs outside of hospitals or other healthcare facilities. It is one of the most common types.

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