Typhoid Fever - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Summary about Typhoid Fever in Urdu

یہ ایک خاص قسم کے بیکٹیریا کی وجہ سے پھیلنے والی بیماری ہے جو کہ درد، بخار، قنض اور پیٹ درد جیسی علامات کا باعث بن سکتی ہے۔  ترقی پذیر ممالک میں یہ مرض بچوں میں عام ہے جو کہ آلودہ کھانے اور پانی کے ذریعے پھیل سکتا ہے۔ اس بیماری کی وجہ بننے والے بیکٹیریا کو سالمونیلا ٹائیفی کہا جاتا ہے جب کہ یہ سالمونیلا پیرا ٹائیفی کی وجہ سے بھی ہو سکتی ہے۔  ٹائیفائیڈ سے متاثرہ افراد  سے یہ مرض دوسروں میں منتقل ہو سکتا ہے۔  ہر سال کم و بیش اکیس ملین افراد اس بیماری کا شکار ہوتے ہیں جن میں کم از کم دو لاکھ افراد لقمہ اجل بن جاتے ہیں۔ ٹائیفائیڈ کے جراثیم چھوٹی آنت کے ذریعے خون میں شامل ہو جاتے ہیں اور جگر، سپلین، اور ہڈی کے گودے میں ان کی افزائش کے بعد یہ دوبارہ سے خون میں شامل ہو کر علامات کا باعث بنتے ہیں۔  اس بیماری کو سنگین صورتحال اختیار کرنے سے روکنے کے لیے باقاعدہ علاج از حد ضروری ہے۔

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Summary about Typhoid Fever in English

Typhoid is an acute ailment caused by bacteria Salmonella typhi and also by Salmonella paratyphi. Affected people catch the infection by consuming food or water contaminated with bacteria. People affected with typhoid can transmit this disease. This usually spreads due to poor sanitation and hygiene. Every year 21 million people are affected by this disease and out of these almost two lac die.


After ingestion, these bacteria enter small intestine and then into the bloodstream. These are transported to liver, spleen, and bone marrow where these multiply,  and then reenter bloodstream. This is the point where symptoms start appearing. This disease is diagnosed by running an investigation on stool samples and some times urine sample.

Prompt treatment is essential to prevent excessive damage and serious consequences. To find and consult a good physician for typhoid treatment log on to marham.pk.


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Symptoms of Typhoid Fever

The first symptoms appear after about six days to one month after the bacteria enters the system. These include:

  • Very high fever which steadily climbs up to 104 degrees Fahrenheit over the period of many days.
  • Rose-colored rash spots start appearing around the abdomen and the neck area.
  • Steadily increasing weakness
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Inability to pass stool easily
  • Headaches
  • Cognitive confusion
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • If it is serious, bowel perforation occurs

Risk Factors of Typhoid Fever

Crowding is an important risk factor for typhoid. Houses with more than 6 people showed have a higher susceptibility to typhoid. If any member of the household suffers from typhoid, that is also an obvious risk factor. Some other risk factors for typhoid also included not using soap to wash hands, absence of toilet in the house and floods in the area. Another risk factor identified was iced drinks. Furthermore, ice cube usage and eating food on the same plate were also listed.

Preventive Measures of Typhoid Fever

The countries that have a more inhibited access to drinkable and clean water and cleaning facilities tend to report having more cases of typhoid. Prevention of typhoid includes vaccination, especially when journeying to any place where there is a higher risk for typhoid. These would help in preventing the bacteria that causes typhoid from causing any serious damage. However, it is necessary to adopt clean eating and drinking habits as the vaccines might not be effective all the time.


Furthermore, it is important to identify the places where contamination could occur. People could then avoid drinking from those places.


There are some other things or habits which will reduce the risk of infection as well. These include drinking water that has been bottled and carbonated, being aware of who is handling your food other than yourself, not eating street food or cold food and not putting ice cubes in drink. Other measures include not eating vegetable or fruits raw. If bottled water is unavailable, the water should be boiled for at least 60 seconds.