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Hepatitis B and C - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Hepatitis B And C in Urdu

ہیپاٹائٹس جگر کی سوزش والی کیفیت ہے۔ ہیپاٹائٹس کسی وائرس کی وجہ سے ہوسکتا ہے ، جیسے ہیپاٹائٹس بی اور سی۔ ہیپاٹائٹس بی اور سی دونوں انفیکشن مختصر اور طویل مدتی اثرات کا سبب بن سکتے ہیں۔ تاہم ، ہیپاٹائٹس سی کا زیادہ سے زیادہ دائمی حالت میں تبدیل ہونے کا امکان زیادہ سے زیادہ ہیپاٹائٹس بی کے مقابلے میں ہوتا ہے۔ ایک شخص جسمانی سیالوں کے ذریعے ہیپاٹائٹس بی منتقل کرسکتا ہے ، جبکہ ہیپاٹائٹس سی کی ترسیل عام طور پر صرف خون سے خون میں اختلاط کے ذریعہ ہوتا ہے۔

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Summary about Hepatitis B And C in English

Need a doctor? Marham brings a diverse range of the top hepatitis B and C doctors in Pakistan, where you can consult a doctor online. 

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. It is usually caused by a viral infection that leads to liver damage. Hepatitis B and C are known as silent killers as they can infect people without showing any symptoms. They are blood-borne pathogens that can be transmitted through direct blood-to-blood contact with an infected person. Both diseases are serious and develop slowly over many years.

Hepatitis B

It is a serious liver infection that is mainly caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). According to sources, “ Two billion people have been infected and about 300 million people are living with a chronic hepatitis B infection. Each year up to 1 million people die from hepatitis B despite the fact that it is preventable and treatable.

Incubation Period: On average, the incubation period of the hepatitis B virus is 90 days. This virus can be detected 30 to 60 days after infection and persists for variable periods of time. 


Hepatitis B is diagnosed with a simple blood test available at your doctor's office or local health unit. Blood tests can determine whether a person has been infected and cleared of the virus, or currently infected, or has never been infected.

Who should get vaccinated against Hepatitis B?

All infants should be routinely vaccinated against hepatitis B at birth. The vaccine is also recommended for people living with someone infected with hepatitis B, travelers, and healthcare and public safety workers who are exposed to blood.

People with high-risk sexual behaviors, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, and people with certain medical conditions, including diabetes, should talk to their doctor about getting vaccinated.

Hepatitis C

The hepatitis C virus usually spreads when someone comes into contact with blood from an infected person. You can consult online with a hepatitis c doctor in Pakistan. The possible causes of the virus include;

Sharing drug-injection equipment: Most people become infected with hepatitis C by sharing needles, syringes, or any other equipment used to prepare and inject drugs 

Genetics: Approximately 10% of infants born to infected mothers get hepatitis C

Exposure: Although uncommon, people can become infected when healthcare professionals do not follow the proper steps needed to prevent the spread of bloodborne infections like changing the syringe, sterilizing the equipment, etc

Sexual contact with an infected person: Hepatitis C can spread during sex, though it has been reported more often among men who have sex with men 

Sharing accessories: People can get infected by sharing glucose monitors, razors, nail clippers, toothbrushes, and other items that may have come into contact with infected blood

Blood transfusion and organ transplant: Hepatitis C can also be spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants.


Hepatitis C is usually diagnosed with two blood tests;

  • An antibody test 

  • A PCR test

Results are usually seen within 2 weeks.

Marham provides a platform for online or in-person consultation with the best hepatologists for the treatment of hepatitis B and C in Pakistan.

Symptoms of Hepatitis B And C

Hepatitis B triggers severe signs, lasting for several weeks, including:

 • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice) and black stool

 • Fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain

 • Chronic infection of hepatitis B may progress into liver failure

Causes of Hepatitis B And C

Hepatitis B is caused by hepatitis B Virus HBV

Hepatitis C is caused by hepatitis C Virus HCV

Risk Factors of Hepatitis B And C

Risk factors for Hepatitis B;

  • Have unprotected sex with multiple sex partners or with someone who's infected with HBV.
  • Share needles during IV drug use.
  • Are a man who has sex with other men.
  • Live with someone who has a chronic HBV infection.
  • an infant born to an infected mother.

Risk Factors for Hepatitis C;

  • Are a health care worker who has been exposed to infected blood, which may happen if an infected needle pierces your skin
  • Have ever injected or inhaled illicit drugs
  • Have HIV
  • Received a piercing or tattoo in an unclean environment using unsterile equipment
  • Received a blood transfusion or organ transplant 
  • Received clotting factor concentrates 
  • Received hemodialysis treatments for a long period of time
  • Were born to a woman with a hepatitis C infection
  • Were ever in prison

Preventive Measures of Hepatitis B And C

Although there is no vaccine against hepatitis C, there are ways to reduce the risk of infection;

  • Do not share or reuse needles, syringes, or other equipment which is used to prepare and inject drugs, hormones, steroids, or other substances

  • Do not use personal items that may have come into contact with an infected person's blood, even in quantities too small to see, mainly razors, nail clippers, or toothbrushes

  • Do not get tattoos or body piercings from an unlicensed facility or in an informal setting

Types of Hepatitis B And C

The two types of Hepatitis B are;

  • Acute Hepatitis B refers to a short-term infection that occurs within the first 6 months after someone is infected with the virus. Infections can vary in severity from mild illness with few or no symptoms to serious conditions. Some people, especially adults, can get rid of the virus without any treatment. 

  • Chronic Hepatitis B refers to a lifelong infection with the Hepatitis B virus. A person's chance of contracting a chronic infection depends on the age at which they become infected. Up to 90% of infants infected with the hepatitis B virus become chronically infected. Conversely, about 5% of adults develop chronic hepatitis B. Over time, chronic hepatitis B can cause serious health problems, including liver damage, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and even death.

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