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Jaundice - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Jaundice in Urdu

یرقان کو انگریزی میں جائنڈس کہا جاتا ہے۔ یہ جگر کی بیماریوں کی ایک اہم ترین علامت ہے۔ یرقان آنکھوں اور جلد کے پیلے ہو جانے سے تشخیص کیا جاتا ہے اسی باعث اس کو پیلیا بھی کہا جاتا ہے۔ اس کی دیگر علامات میں مسوڑوں اور زبان کی رنگت تبدیل ہو کر پیلل یا سیاہی مائل ہو جانا شامل ہیں۔ اس کے علاوہ بھوک کی کمی، منہ کا تلخ ذائقہ، جلد پر دانے، کمزوری اور چڑچڑا پن شامل ہیں۔ بچوں میں پیدائش کے بعد یرقان کی علامات ظاہر ہو سکتی ہیں۔ اس بیماری کا علاج اور خوراک میں احتیاط اس سے نجات دلانے میں معاون ثابت ہوتے ہیں۔

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Summary about Jaundice in English

Marham is Pakistan's leading healthcare platform that provides the list of best doctors for Jaundice in Pakistan. You can book an appointment with the best Jaundice specialist Pakistan  or also call to know the  Jaundice treatment price in Pakistan. We are trusted by our Jaundice doctors in Pakistan who are known for their quality services and treatments based on medical experience, practice locations, availability hours, patient reviews, and fees.

Jaundice is characterized by the yellowing of the skin, eyes, or mucosa, caused by a rise in the bilirubin levels in the blood, most commonly associated with the inflammation of the liver. Bilirubin is a by-product formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin. Normally, the bilirubin is passed on to the digestive tract and is eliminated with the stools, however, if the normal process of bilirubin elimination is disrupted, its levels in the blood may rise to an abnormal level, hence leading to jaundice. 

Jaundice is not a disease itself but may denote any other underlying medical problems with the liver, gallbladder, or any other cause. Jaundice is fairly common among newborn babies. 

The best doctor for Jaundice in Pakistan can be consulted according to their experience, qualification, and fees.

Causes of Jaundice:

Following are some of the conditions, most commonly associated with jaundice:

  • Infection of the liver (viral infection like hepatitis A, B, C, or E)

  • Birth defects (like Gilbert syndrome, Rotor syndrome, etc.)

  • Chronic liver disease 

  • Gallstones

  • Cancer 

  • Pregnancy 

  • Blood disorders 

  • Use or overuse of certain drugs 

Symptoms of  Jaundice :

Some of the most common and earliest symptoms of jaundice are;

  • Yellowing of the skin

  • Yellowing of the whites of the eye 

  • Fever 

  • Chills 

  • Nausea/vomiting

  • Fatigue

  • Abdominal pain 

  • Loss of appetite

  • Weight loss 

  • Dark colored urine

  • Pale-colored stools 

  • Itchy skin 

Types of Jaundice:

Jaundice can be categorized into three types based on the cause and its manifestation. 

Pre-hepatic: Pre-hepatic jaundice is characterized by an overproduction of bilirubin and the resulting inability of the liver to process and eliminate it via the gut. 

Intra-hepatic: This type of jaundice is caused by liver disease, with viral hepatitis being the major cause associated with it. There can be either an inability of the liver to conjugate bilirubin or to excrete it efficiently in the gut, hence leading to abnormally high levels of bilirubin in the blood. 

Post-hepatic: Also known as ‘obstructive jaundice’, it is caused by an obstruction in the normal passage of bile from the liver to the gut. It can be caused by a variety of benign or malignant growths in the biliary tree and may require surgery. 


For the diagnosis of jaundice, the top verified and most experienced doctors in Pakistan may prescribe a number of blood tests, along with taking your medical history and physical examination. 

The diagnostic tests may include;

  • Bilirubin blood tests

  • Ultrasound

  • CBC (Complete Blood Count)

  • ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)

  • Liver function tests (LFTs)

  • MRCP (Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography)

  • ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography)

  • Virus panel

  • Liver biopsy 

Treatment for Jaundice:

Usually, there is no specific treatment required for jaundice and it resolves itself within 10-14 days. The treatment would involve managing the symptoms and treating the underlying cause.

Jaundice can be managed by taking the following measures;

  • Eating a well-balanced diet

  • Increasing your fluid intake

  • Parenteral nutrition 

  • IV therapy 

  • Managing itchy skin with topical lotions or creams 

  • Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for obstructive jaundice 

  • Surgery may be required in severe cases of obstructive jaundice


When jaundice goes untreated for a long period of time, it may lead to a condition known as Kernicterus. It is characterized by brain damage leading to athetoid cerebral palsy and hearing loss. Hence, it is of vital importance to treat the underlying cause of jaundice at the earliest. Newborn babies are most commonly affected by kernicterus, however, the damage is not permanent and can be reversed with proper treatment and care.

Symptoms of Jaundice

Sometimes the person may not have symptoms of jaundice and the condition may be discovered by mistake. The severity of symptoms depends on the underlying causes and the speed or slowness with which the disease develops.

If you have short-term jaundice (usually caused by infections), the following symptoms and signs may appear:

  • Fever

  • Chills

  • Stomach ache

  • Symptoms of the flu

  • Change the color of the skin

  • Dark stools of urine and or clay

If jaundice is not caused by infection, symptoms such as weight loss or itching of the skin (pruritus) may occur. Abdominal pain is a common symptom if jaundice occurred due to the cancer of the bile duct and pancreas.

 . On occasion, it can cause jaundice in liver disease if:

  • Chronic hepatitis or inflammation of the liver.

  • Pyoderma gangrenosum (a type of skin disease)

  • Acute hepatitis A, B or C

  • Polyarthralgia (inflammation of the joints)

Causes of Jaundice

The main cause of the jaundice is excess bilirubin. Bilirubin, responsible for the yellow color of skin and eyes in jaundice. It is normally a part of the pigment released due to the degradation of "spent" red blood cells.

Newborns produce more bilirubin than adults because red blood cells are produced more in the early days of life. In normal people, the filtered bilirubin from the liver releases into the intestinal tract.  The immature liver of a newborn can often not eliminate bilirubin fast enough, resulting in excess bilirubin. Jaundice due to these normal neonatal conditions is called physiological jaundice and usually occurs on the second or third day of life.

Risk Factors of Jaundice

Jaundice is often a result of an underlying condition that causes the production of too much bilirubin or the liver is getting rid of it properly. Both lead to the deposition of bilirubin in tissues.

The underlying conditions that can cause jaundice includes:

Acute hepatitis: This may affect the ability of the liver to conjugate bilirubin, leading to accumulation.

Inflammation of the bile ducts: It can prevent the elimination of bile and excretion of bilirubin hence causing jaundice.

Bile obstruction: Getting rid of bilirubin is hindered due to this condition.

Hemolytic anemia: Bilirubin production is increased due to the excessive breakdown of RBCs.

Gilbert syndrome: This is a hereditary disease that affects the ability of enzymes to treat bile excretion.

Cholestasis: The flow of bile interrupts the liver by cholestasis. Conjugated bilirubin, which contains bile, remains in the liver rather than being excreted.

Preventive Measures of Jaundice

Jaundice is related to liver function. It is important to maintain the health of this vital organ by having a balanced diet, exercising regularly and not consuming more than the recommended amount of alcohol.

Types of Jaundice

There are three main types of jaundice:

Hepatocellular jaundice:

Hepatocellular jaundice is caused by injury or disease in the liver.

Hemolytic yellowing:

Hemolytic yellowing occurs as a result of hemolysis or accelerated red cell degeneration, resulting in increased bilirubin production.

Obstructive jaundice:

Obstructive jaundice occurs as a result of bile duct obstruction. This prevents bilirubin from leaving the liver.

Jaundice treatment in other cities

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