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Acyanotic Heart Disease - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Acyanotic Heart Disease in Urdu

اس سے مراد دل کے وہ مقائص ہی جو پیدائش کے وقت یا اس سے پہلے پیدا ہو جاتے ہیں۔ ان خرابیوں میں درج ذیل مسائل شامل ہیں ۔

ventricular septal defect (VSD)

atrial septal defect (ASD)

patent ductus arteriosus

pulmonary valve stenosis

aortic valve stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta 

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Summary about Acyanotic Heart Disease in English

Acyanotic heart disease is a set of heart problems that usually arise prior to or at birth. They do not, however, hinder the quantity of oxygen or blood that is to be relayed to the tissues. This condition is a sub-category of congenital heart defects. Basically, the blood passes from the left chamber(s) of the heart to the right one(s) because of a defect in the interventricular septum’s (wall of the heart) structure.
The person encounters high blood pressure which would in turn strain the heart's functionality. Due to this increased pressure, the heart can grow weak and the chances of heart failure become more probable.

Symptoms of Acyanotic Heart Disease

Following are the symptoms of acyanotic heart disease:

  • Heart Murmur- Babies with acyanotic heart disease may have a heart murmur at birth, but others may not have any symptoms at all. Even if they do not cause any problems at first, these flaws can cause problems in the long run.
  • Hypertension- People who have one of these defects are more likely to have high blood pressure because the heart has to work harder to do its job. They may also develop pulmonary hypertension, which is defined as high blood pressure in the lungs.
  • Heart Failure- They may also develop heart failure if the heart is unable to pump blood around the body.
  • Fatigue- The patient may feel fatigued due to a lower oxygen supply.


Causes of Acyanotic Heart Disease

Scientists aren't sure what causes congenital heart defects. Some evidence suggests that they are related to:

  • chromosomal abnormality
  • genetic predisposition
  • diabetes
  • phenylketonuria (a blood disorder)
  • drug use
  • viral infection in the mother during pregnancy

Risk Factors of Acyanotic Heart Disease

Even though no concrete cause has been identified, there are several risk factors that raise the susceptibility for this condition. Pregnant women with diabetes have a much higher chance of birthing a child with this ailment. Other risk factors associated with pregnant women include alcohol consumption. If women consume more alcohol than has been recommended during pregnancy they are much more likely to birth a child that has acyanotic heart disease.

The genetics are another component that is indispensable. It could be that the child inherits this condition from his parents.

Another risk factor is the whether the child has Down's syndrome. This genetic abnormality is characterized by a set of disabilities. About 50 % of the children who have Down’s syndrome will also have a congenital heart disease.


Preventive Measures of Acyanotic Heart Disease

Research has not properly identified the causes of acyanotic heart disease. However, we can formulate preventive measures by looking at the risk factors.

If the woman is pregnant, it is recommended that they be vaccinated against flu and rubella. They should also not drink alcohol at all. Taking 0.4 mg folic acid tablets or supplements every day for the first twelve weeks of pregnancy is also a regimen that doctors have recommended. Regular consultation with the general physician before self-administrating any medication during the pregnancy is also very important.

Avoiding any contact with those who have infection is also necessary. The diabetes should be under maximum control in the case of pregnant women with diabetes. Lastly, the minimization of the pregnant person's exposure to organic solvents like paint thinners and nail polish removers is necessary.

Types of Acyanotic Heart Disease

  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD). This is a frequently occurring type of acyanotic heart disease. In this type, there is a prominent hole in the septum section that separates the left and right ventricle
  • Atrial septal defect (ASD). A similar condition is the atrial septal defect, which is characterized by a hole in the septum between the atria.
  • Pulmonary stenosis. In the condition of pulmonary stenosis, the pulmonary valve situated in the heart’s right side is atypically narrow. This means that the heart requires more work to get the blood to the lungs. This puts much pressure on the heart.
  • Aortic stenosis. As the name suggests, in aortic stenosis the uncharacteristically narrower valve is the aortic valve. This valve is situated in the left side of the heart. Again, there is additional strain on the heart to pump the blood.
  • Patent ductus ateriosus (PDA). Patent ductus ateriosus is regarding a duct situated inside the heart that should close by itself after birth. However, in those who have this condition the duct does not completely shut off. This means that a certain amount of oxygenated blood leaks back into the heart and lungs instead of being pumped away from them. This would put more pressure on the heart as it has to pump harder in order to deal with the aforementioned problem.

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