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AIDS - Symptoms, Causes and Prevention


ایڈز ایک لاعلاج اور مہلک بیماری ہے۔ یہ مرض ایچ آئی وی وائرس کی وجہ سے پھیلتا ہے جو کہ انسان کے مدافعتی نظام کو تباہ کر دیتا ہے۔ اس باعث ایڈز کے مریض کو ہونے والی ہر بیماری سنگین شکل اختیار کر لیتی ہے کینکہ اب جسم بیماریوں کے خلاف مزاحمت کرنے کی قوت کھو بیٹھا ہے۔ ایڈز کا باعث بننے والا وائرس خون اور دیگر جسمانی رطوبتوں میں رہتا ہے۔ 

ایڈز متاثرہ فرد سے دوسرے لوگوں میں خون کے انتقال اور جنسی روابط سے پھیل سکتا ہے۔ ایڈز کا شکار ماں سے پیدا ہونے والے بچوں میں بھی یہ بیماری پھیل سکتی ہے۔ استعمال شدہ سرنجیں اور سوئیاں بھی ایڈز کے پھیلائو کا ذریعہ ہیں۔ جلد میں چبھنے اور ناک، کان چھئدنے والے اوزار بھی اس بیماری کے پھیلائو کا باعث بن سکتے ہیں۔ اسی طرح آلات جراحی، دانتوں کے علاج میں استعمال ہونے والے اوزار اور  حجامت کے لیے استعمال ہونے والی چیزیں بھی اس بیماری کو پھیلا سکتی ہیں۔

ایڈز کا وائرس انسانی جسم میں کئی مہینوں یا سالوں تک رہ سکتا ہے۔ اس کی ابتدائی علامات زکام جیسی ہو سکتی ہیں جن کو اکثر قابل توجہ نہیں سمجھا جاتا۔ وقت کے ساتھ درج ذیل علامات سامنے آسکتی ہیں۔

  • وزن میں اچانک کمی۔
  • بخار جو کہ ایک مہینے یا اس سے زیادہ عرصے تک رہے ۔
  • اسہال کی بیماری کا لمبے عرصے تک رہنا۔
    ایڈز سے بچاؤ میں احتياطی تدابیر بہت اہم ہیں۔ 
  • جسمانی تعلقات کو اپنے جیون ساتھی تک محدود رکھیں۔ 
  • جنسی بے راہروی سے بچیں۔
  • ٹیکہ لگوانے کے لیے ہمیشہ غیر استعمال شدہ سرنج پر اصرار کریں۔
  • خون کا انتقال ناگزیر ہو تو یقین کر لیں کہ یہ ایڈز اور دیگر بیماریوں کے جراثیم سے پاک ہے۔

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Symptoms of AIDS

Primary infection (acute HIV)

Most HIV-positive people will become sick within a month or two after the transmission of the influenza virus. This condition, called primary or acute HIV infection, can last for several weeks. Possible symptoms are:


A headache

Muscle pain and joint pain


Pain in the throat and in the mouth

Swollen lymph nodes, mainly on the neck

These symptoms may be so mild that you may not even notice them. However, the amount of virus in the blood (viral) is quite high so far. As a result, the infection spreads more easily during primary infection than in the next phase.

Symptomatic HIV infection

As the virus continues to multiply and destroy the cells of the immune system - the cells in your body that act against germs - you can develop mild infections or chronic signs and symptoms, such as:




weight loss

Oral yeast infection (yeast infection)

Zoster (herpes zoster)

Progress towards AIDS

When AIDS occurs, your immune system is seriously damaged. It is more likely that opportunistic infections or opportunistic cancers occur - diseases that normally do not bother people with a healthy immune system.

Signs and symptoms of some of these infections can be:

Soak the night

Repeated fever

Chronic diarrhea

Persistent white spots or unusual changes in the tongue or mouth

Persistent and inexplicable tiredness

weight loss

Rashes or tumors

Causes of AIDS

AIDS infection is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. It can be transmitted through sexual contact or blood or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.

How is HIV becoming AIDS?

HIV destroys CD4 T cells - the white blood cells that play an important role in the fight against the disease. The fewer CD4 T cells, the weaker your immune system will be. You can be infected with HIV for many years before it becomes AIDS. AIDS is diagnosed when the number of CD4 T cells falls below 200 or if there is a complication that defines AIDS.

How HIV spreads

For HIV infection, contaminated blood, sperm or vaginal secretions must enter the body. You can do it in different ways:

By sex

You can become infected if you have vaginal, anal or oral sex with an infected partner whose blood, sperm or vaginal secretions enter the body. The virus can enter the body through mouth sores or small tears that sometimes develop during sexual activities in the rectum or vagina.

Blood Transfusion

In some cases, the virus can be transmitted by blood transfusion. US hospitals and blood banks are currently testing the blood supply for HIV antibodies. The risk is therefore very low.

Sharing needles.

In case of contact with infected intravenous drugs (needles and syringes), the risk of becoming infected with HIV and other infectious diseases, such as hepatitis, is high.

During pregnancy or childbirth or while breastfeeding.

The virus from mother can transmit to the child. HIV-infected mothers who are treated for pregnancy during pregnancy can significantly reduce the risk to their children.

Risk Factors of AIDS

When HIV / AIDS first appeared in the US, it was mainly men who had sex with men who were affected. However, it is now clear that HIV is also spread through heterosexual relationships. Everyone, regardless of age, race, gender or sexual orientation, can become infected. However, the risk of contracting HIV / AIDS is greater if

Make sex without protection.

Use a new latex or polyurethane condoms every time you have sex. Anal sex is riskier than vaginal sex. The risk of HIV increases if you have many sexual partners.

Have STI.

Many sexually transmitted diseases cause open wounds in the genitals. These wounds serve as a door to HIV infection to enter your body.

Use intravenous medications.

People who take intravenous medications often share needles and syringes. It puts it on drops of blood from other people.

Is an uncircumcised man. Studies indicate that lack of circumcision increases the risk of heterosexual HIV transmission.

Preventive Measures of AIDS

There is no vaccine against HIV infection and AIDS treatment. To prevent the spread of HIV: 

Consider the drug Truvada.

Drugs may reduce the risk of sexually transmitted HIV infection in people at very high risk. You must take it every day. It does not prevent other sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), so you should always have safe sex.  

Tell your sexual partners if you have HIV.

It is important to tell all your current and past sexual partners that you are HIV-positive. They must be tested.

Use a clean needle.

If you use a hypodermic needle, make sure it is sterile and do not let go. Use needle exchange programs in your community and consider using drug-related assistance.

If you are pregnant, contact your doctor immediately.

If you are HIV-positive, you can pass the infection on to your child. However, if you are treated during pregnancy, you can significantly reduce the risk to your child.

Consider male circumcision.

There is evidence that circumcision can help reduce the risk of HIV infection in men.

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