Blood Pressure 101; Know About Hypertension And Low Blood Pressure

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Blood in your body needs a fair amount of force to reach all the body parts and supply oxygen. This work is done by the heart and the resultant pressure created, is termed as blood pressure. This blood pressure can often fluctuate and result in hypertension or low blood pressure. Two readings measure the whole blood pressure. Systolic is the upper reading and diastolic is the lower reading.

The normal range for blood pressure is below 120/80.

Your heart performs this pumping action well, until your age, lifestyle, diet, and unhealthy habits kick in. Internal and external factors can affect blood pressure and hence the consequences. Abnormalities in blood pressure present many signs and symptoms. When blood pressure is higher than normal it is called hypertension whereas lower than normal blood pressure is called hypotension.

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is also called hypertension (HTN). It is the condition where the force exerted by blood on walls of blood vessels is above normal, consistently. In adults, a blood pressure reading of 120-129 (systolic) and a diastolic reading above 80mmHg that remains so, overtime is considered as high blood pressure.

The American Heart Association has tightened guidelines for blood pressure range. High blood pressure is considered dangerous and often it is called THE SILENT KILLER. This is because it increases the chances of stroke, heart attack, and leads to the hardening of arteries. It also affects kidneys and other organs like the eyes.

Learn more about hypertension

Symptoms Of High Blood Pressure

If you want to know how do you feel when you have hypertension? Here is the answer. Hypertensive patients can have the following symptoms:

    • Pounding headache
    • Tiredness
    • Vision changes
    • Breathing issues
    • Bloodshot eyes
    • Pain in chest
    • Pounding sensation in ears, neck, and chest
    • Blood in urine

If you are experiencing any of these symptoms book an appointment with the best physicians in Pakistan through You could be going through a hypertensive crisis which is a dangerous condition. High blood pressure can be prevented and controlled by following various tips and tricks.


High blood pressure has no definite cause. But several factors increase the risk of high blood pressure. These include:

    • Corpulence
    • High cholesterol levels
    • Smoking
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • Excessive consumption of salt
    • Alcoholism
    • Old age
    • Family history of hypertension
    • Genetics
    • Adrenal and thyroid abnormalities
    • Sleep apnea
    • Stress
    • Chronic kidney disease

What Are The Types Of Hypertension?

There are two types of hypertension:

    • Primary hypertension
    • Secondary hypertension

1. Primary Hypertension

Primary hypertension has no definite cause. It is believed to be a result of genetics, lack of nutrition, obesity, and an unhealthy lifestyle. It is also termed as essential hypertension.

2. Secondary Hypertension

This kind of hypertension is the one that surfaces as a result of other medical conditions. These can be heart problems, kidney issues, and diseases of the endocrine system. Hypertension in pregnancy is also secondary hypertension.

Low Blood Pressure

Low blood pressure might seem desirable but it can be dangerous and even fatal in serious cases. This is known as hypotension. Readings below 90mmHg for systolic blood pressure and below 60mmHg for diastolic blood pressure are the range for hypotension. Low blood pressure can be due to many reasons from being as simple as dehydration to severe causes like surgical disorders.

Low blood pressure can be treated through diet, medications, and lifestyle changes.

Symptoms Of Low Blood Pressure

Low blood pressure can exhibit no symptoms at all in some people and others might experience the following symptoms:

    • Blurred vision
    • Syncope
    • Lightheadedness
    • Nausea
    • Tiredness
    • Lack of concentration

In severe hypotension symptoms can look like:

    • Cold and clammy skin
    • Yellow coloration of the skin
    • Confusion
    • Fast and shallow breathing
    • Weak pulse

These symptoms indicate a health emergency. In case of any such symptoms seek medical attention right away.

Causes Of Low Blood Pressure

Low blood pressure can result from several reasons such as:

    • Dehydration
    • Blood loss
    • Septicemia
    • Hypoglycemia
    • Addison’s disease
    • Bradycardia
    • Heart failure
    • Heart valve issues
    • Anaphylaxis
    • Pregnancy
    • Malnutrition

Other than these use of certain medicines like diuretics, tricyclic antidepressants, beta-blockers, and those used for erectile dysfunction can also cause hypotension.

Types of Low Blood Pressure

Low blood pressure has the following types, depending upon its causes and other factors. Types of low blood pressure are:

1.Postural Hypotension/ Orthostatic Hypotension

A sudden drop in blood pressure after standing is called postural hypotension. It occurs because blood pools in the legs and the mechanism to counter this ie constriction of vessels and increased heart rate fail, leading to diminished blood flow to the brain. This can cause dizziness, lightheadedness, blurred vision, and fainting. It can affect geriatric patients, people on prolonged bed rest, and even healthy people as well.

2. Postprandial Hypotension

Lowering of blood pressure after eating a meal is termed as postprandial hypotension. Here the blood flow diverts to the GI tract. This can cause hypotension that can lead you to faint and fall, especially if you are old. Eating small low carb meals and adjusting high blood pressure medication according to condition might help here.

3. Neurally Mediated Hypotension

This type of hypotension results from faulty communication between the heart and brain. It occurs in children and young people who have been standing for a long period.

4. Multiple System Atrophy With Orthostatic Hypotension

This is a rare condition also termed as Shy-Drager syndrome. It causes damage to the autonomic nervous system that controls functions like breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.

Book an appointment now, to answer all your queries. You can book an appointment with top nutritionists in Pakistan through Marham by calling at Marham helpline: 0311-1222398 or by online appointment booking facility through the website or Marham mobile app.

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She is pharmacist by profession and has worked with several health care setups.She began her career as health and lifestyle writer.She is adept in writing and editing informative articles for both consumer and scientific audiences,as well as patient education materials.

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