Undergoing a surgical procedure is a cause of distress for people. Not only because of its invasive nature but also because of the post-operative healing process and care required to prevent infections in the wounds. Laparoscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional operations as it boosts of minimally invasive nature and a reduction in discomfort and risk.
Laparoscopic surgery takes its name from laparoscope a thin instrument with a camera and a light on its one end. It can be inserted into the body through a small incision and a video of internal view can be seen on the screen. Laparoscopic surgery was initially used for gallbladder and gynecological issues but now it has come in to play for a number of other organs and diseases. Most important of these are mentioned below.
Applications of Laparoscopic Surgery
Nowadays laparoscopic surgery is being used for
- Intestinal surgeries
- Crohn’s disease
- Rectal prolapse
- Ulcerative colitis
- Severe constipation
- Prostate removal
- Gynecological surgeries and many other issues are treated today with the help of laparoscopic surgery.
Bariatric surgery is performed on stomach and intestines for extremely obese patients to assist them in weight loss. Mostly it is done for people with body mass index (BMI) above 40 and also for persons with BMI between 35-40, who are suffering from diabetes type-2 and heart disease.
Types of Bariatric Surgery
There are two basic types of bariatric surgery.
- Restrictive surgeries
- Malabsorptive/restrictive surgery
This type of surgery works by a reduction in the size of the stomach, as a result of which amount of food that stomach can hold is restricted. Hence person eats less that aids in losing weight.
This kind of surgeries are more invasive and in addition to restricting the size of the stomach, parts interfering with the absorption of calories are also surgically removed.
Some of the examples of restrictive surgeries are as follows:
1. Gastric Banding
This type of surgery is also called lap band surgery. A synthetic band is placed around upper part of the stomach creating a small sized pouch just below the esophagus at the top of the stomach thus drastically limiting the amount of food that can be eaten. This band is removable and can be removed at any time by the surgeon.
2. Sleeve Gastrectomy
This procedure aids in weight loss solely by causing a reduction in the volume of the stomach. The stomach is vertically divided into a sleeve or a narrow tube by stapling and removing more than 85% of it. This sleeve or tube connects to the intestine. This surgery not only results in a reduction in the amount of food that stomach can hold but also diminished production of hunger-stimulating hormone-Ghrelin. This procedure is a permanent one, done laparoscopically and is not reversible.
3. Gastric Bypass Surgery
This is the most common type of weight loss surgery, accounting for almost 80% of all weight loss surgeries. It is also referred to as roux-en-Y gastric bypass. It is a combination of both restrictive and restrictive/malabsorptive surgical approaches. In this surgery proximal portion of the stomach is converted into an egg-sized pouch and is connected to intestine at a point bypassing 2 feet of the normal length of intestine.
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